Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Dermatology

.: REVIEW
Derinin Yapısının Aydınlatılması ve Geçirgenliğinin Değerlendirilmesinde Kullanılan Biyofiziksel Yöntemler
Biophysical Methods Used to Assess the Structure and the Permeability of Skin
Sevgi GÜNGÖRa, M. Sedef ERDALa, Deniz ÖZDİNa
aFarmasötik Teknoloji AD, İstanbul Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, İstanbul
Turkiye Klinikleri J Dermatol 2011;21(1):25-39
Article Language: TR
ÖZET
İnsan derisi, organizmayı çevresel faktörlere karşı koruyan ve aynı zamanda organizmadan sıcaklık ve su kaybını da düzenleyen önemli bir organdır. Geniş yüzey alanına sahip olması ve uygulamanın kolaylığı deriyi, gerek lokal gerekse sistemik etki elde etmek üzere ilaç uygulama açısından ideal kılmaktadır. Ancak, insan derisinin en dış tabakası olan stratum corneum, organizmayı korumak üzere mükemmel bir biçimde düzenlenmiştir ve yüksek derecede bariyer özelliğine sahiptir. Yapısal olarak tuğlalar ile örülmüş bir duvara benzetilen stratum corneum'da seramidler, kolesterol ve serbest yağ asitlerinden oluşan hücreler arası lipidler yapı ve bileşimleri bakımından çok özeldir. Derinin yapısının aydınlatılması ve bariyer işlevini üstlenmiş olan stratum corneum'un, özelliklerinin tanımlanması, derinin bakımı ve tedavisine yönelik yeni formülasyonların geliştirilmesi ve deriden ilaç moleküllerinin geçişinin incelenmesi açısından önem taşımaktadır. Deri üzerinden gerçekleşen su kaybı, derinin hidrasyon seviyesi, yüzey lipidlerinin miktarı, mekanik ve yüzey özellikleri ile epidermal lipidlerin yapısal düzeni parametrelerinin in vivo, ex vivo ve in vitro olarak incelenmesi amacıyla çeşitli biyofiziksel yöntemler kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, dermatoloji, farmasötik teknoloji ve kozmetoloji alanlarında derinin bariyer işlevinin değerlendirilmesinde ve derinin yapısal özelliklerinin aydınlatılmasında yararlanılan biyofiziksel yöntemlerden en çok kullanılanları ele alınmış ve araştırma örnekleri sunulmuştur.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Deri emilimi; epidermis; spektroskopi, fourier transform kızılötesi; su kaybı, fark edilemeyen
ABSTRACT
Human skin is a well engineered organ that protects organism against enviromental factors and regulates heat and water loss from the body. It has a large surface area and it is easily accessible. Therefore, it offers an ideal application site to deliver therapeutic agents for both local and systemic actions. However, the outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum, is a highly efficient and well organized barrier. Stratum corneum has been represented as a brick and mortar model and the unique mixture of its intercellular lipids composed mainly of ceramides, cholesterol and free fatty acids. Understanding of the structure and function of the skin and stratum corneum is vital to develop novel formulations designed for care and treatment of skin and to evaluate permeation of drug molecules through it. Parameters such as transepidermal water loss, hydration state and amount of surface lipids of stratum corneum, mechanical and surface properties of skin, and conformational order of intercellular lipids have been investigated in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro by using various biophysical methods. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the use of biophysical methods mostly used to assess the barrier function and structural parameters of skin in the fields of dermatology, pharmaceutical technology and cosmetology.

Keywords: Skin absorption; epidermis; spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared; water loss, insensible

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30.03.2014

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