Journal of Traditional Medical Complementary Therapies

.: REVIEW
Bazı Bitkilerin Mitokondriyal Oksidatif Stres Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Değerlendirilmesi: Geleneksel Derleme
Evaluating the Effects of Some Plants on Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress: Traditional Review
Beyzanur BOSTANCIa , Şebnem DÖNMEZb , Emine AKALINc , Yağız ÜRESİNd
aİstanbul Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Farmasötik Botanik Doktora Programı, İstanbul, Türkiye
bİstanbul Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Tıbbi Farmakoloji ve Klinik Farmakoloji Yüksek Lisans Programı, İstanbul, Türkiye
cİstanbul Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Botanik ABD, İstanbul, Türkiye
dİstanbul Üniversitesi İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi, Tıbbi Farmakoloji ABD, İstanbul, Türkiye
J Tradit Complem Med. 2023;6(3):274-87
doi: 10.5336/jtracom.2023-96659
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Oksidatif stres 100'den fazla patolojiyle ilişkilendirilmektedir. Antioksidanlar, serbest radikalleri ortadan kaldırarak veya etkisiz hâle getirerek organizmayı oksidatif strese karşı korur. Özellikle son yıllarda, bitkilerin antioksidan özelliklerinden ötürü kullanımı yaygınlaşmıştır. Yapılan araştırmalara göre Türkiye'de 800 kişinin %35,3'ünün gıda takviyesi kullandığı belirlenmiş, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nde ise kullanılan gıda takviyelerinin %54'ünü C vitamini, %64'ünü E vitamini, %14'ünü alfa ve beta-karoten ve %11'ini selenyumun oluşturduğu öngörülmüştür. Antioksidan aktivite amacıyla kullanılacak bitkilerin içerisindeki etken madde teşhislerinin doğru bir şekilde yapılmış ve etkinliğinin kanıtlanmış olması, bu bitkilerin etkililiğinin ve güvenliliğinin incelendiği klinik araştırmaların yapılmış olması gerekmektedir. Biz bu çalışmada, Achillea millefolium, Aloe vera, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Moringa oleifera, Camellia sinensis, Nigella sativa ve Vitis vinifera türlerinin in vivo ve in vitro antioksidan özellikleri, klinik çalışmaları ve toksisiteleri inlecelendi. Yaptığımız araştırmada A. millefolium, M. oleifera ve V. vinifera türlerinin antioksidan aktivitesinin in vitro olarak gösterilmesine karşın aktiviteyle ilgili yeterli klinik çalışma olmadığı görülmüştür. G. glabra ve A. vera'nın güçlü bir antioksidan olarak etki ettiği yapılan in vitro ve klinik çalışmalarla desteklenmesine rağmen bitkinin olası toksisitesi kullanımına dikkat edilmesi gerektiğini göstermektedir. Çalışmamızda, güçlü antioksidan aktivite gösterdiği iddia edilen türlerin in vivo ve klinik çalışmaları yetersiz bulunmuştur. Bu türler üzerinde daha fazla klinik çalışma yapılmasına ve bu bitkilerin antioksidan gıda takviyesi olarak koruyucu tıpta kullanılmasından önce sistematik olarak araştırılmasına, gerek diğer besinlerle gerekse ilaçlarla birlikte kullanılmalarının güvenliliğine dair araştırmalar yapılmasına ihtiyaç vardır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Mitokondri; oksidatif stres; antioksidan; fitoterapi; klinik araştırma
ABSTRACT
Oxidative stress has been associated with more than a hundred pathologies. Antioxidants protect the organism against oxidative stress. Especially in recent years, the use of plants has become widespread due to their antioxidant properties. According to the researches, it was determined that 35.3% of 800 people in Türkiye use food supplements, and it has been predicted that 54% of the food supplements used in the United States are composed of vitamin C, 64% vitamin E, 14% alpha and beta-carotene and 11% selenium. The active ingredient in the plants used as antioxidants should be diagnosed correctly and their effectiveness should be proven, and clinical studies should be conducted to examine the effectiveness and safety of these plants. In this study, we examined in vivo and in vitro antioxidant properties, clinical studies and toxicities of Achillea millefolium, Aloe vera, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Moringa oleifera, Camellia sinensis, Nigella sativa and Vitis vinifera. In our study, although the antioxidant activities of A. millefolium, M. oleifera and V. vinifera were demonstrated in vitro, it was seen that there were not enough clinical studies on the activities. Although it is supported by clinical studies that G. glabra and A. vera act as powerful antioxidants, they should be used with caution due to their toxicity. There is a need for more clinical studies on these species and systematic investigation of these plants before their use as antioxidant food supplements in preventive medicine, and studies on the safety of their use with other nutrients and drugs are needed.

Keywords: Mitochondria; oxidative stress; antioxidants; phytotherapy; clinical trial
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3. SCOPE OF THE SERVICES

3.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine the scope and quality of the services via the "SITE".

3.2. To benefit the services of "Turkiye Klinikleri" "SITE", the "USER" must deliver the features that will be specified by "Turkiye Klinikleri". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change this necessity any time single-sided.

3.3. Not for a limited number, the services "Turkiye Klinikleri" will provide through the "SITE" for a certain price or for free are;

- Providing scientific articles, books and informative publications for health industry.

- Providing structural, statistical and editorial support to article preparation stage for scientific journals.

4. GENERAL PROVISIONS

4.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine which of the services and contents provided in the "SITE" will be charged.

4.2. People benefiting from the services provided by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and using the website can use the "SITE" only according to the law and only for personal reasons. Users have the criminal and civil liability for every process and action they take in the "SITE". Every USER agrees, declares and undertakes that they will not proceed by any function or action infringement of rights of "Turkiye Klinikleri"s and/or other third parties', they are the exclusive right holder on usage, processing, storage, made public and revealing any written, visual or auditory information reported to Turkiye Klinikleri" and/or "SITE" to the third parties. "USER" agrees and undertakes that s/he will not duplicate, copy, distribute, process, the pictures, text, visual and auditory images, video clips, files, databases, catalogs and lists within the "SITE", s/he will not be using these actions or with other ways to compete with "Turkiye Klinikleri", directly or indirectly.

4.3. The services provided and the context published within the "SITE" by third parties is not under the responsibility of "Turkiye Klinikleri", institutions collaborated with "Turkiye Klinikleri", "Turkiye Klinikleri" employee and directors, "Turkiye Klinikleri" authorized salespeople. Commitment to accuracy and legality of the published information, context, visual and auditory images provided by any third party are under the full responsibility of the third party. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not promise and guarantee the safety, accuracy and legality of the services and context provided by a third party.

4.4. "USER"s cannot act against "Turkiye Klinikleri", other "USER"s and third parties by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" has no direct and/or indirect responsibility for any damage a third party suffered or will suffer regarding "USER"s actions on the "SITE" against the rules of the hereby "Terms of Use" and the law.

4.5. "USER"s accept and undertake that the information and context they provided to the "SITE" are accurate and legal. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is not liable and responsible for promising and guaranteeing the verification of the information and context transmitted to "Turkiye Klinikleri" by the "USER"s, or uploaded, changed and provided through the "SITE" by them and whether these information are safe, accurate and legal.

4.6. "USER"s agree and undertake that they will not perform any action leading to unfair competition, weakening the personal and commercial credit of "Turkiye Klinikleri" and a third party,  encroaching and attacking on personal rights within the "SITE" in accordance with the Turkish Commercial Code Law.

4.7. "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the right to change the services and the context within the "SITE"  anytime. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use this right without any notification and timelessly. "USER"s have to make the changes and/or corrections "Turkiye Klinikleri" required immediately. Any changes and/or corrections that are required by "Turkiye Klinikleri", may be made by "Turkiye Klinikleri" when needed. Any harm, criminal and civil liability resulted or will result from changes and/or corrections required by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and were not made on time by the "USER"s belongs completely to the users.

4.8. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may give links through the "SITE" to other websites and/or "CONTEXT"s and/or folders that are outside of their control and owned and run by third parties. These links are provided for ease of reference only and do not hold qualification for support the respective web SITE or the admin or declaration or guarantee for the information inside. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not hold any responsibility over the web-sites connected through the links on the "SITE", folders and context, the services or products on the websites provided through these links or their context.

4.9. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use the information provided to them by the "USERS" through the "SITE" in line with the terms of the "PRIVACY POLICY" and "USER CONTRACT". It may process the information or classify and save them on a database. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may also use the USER's or visitor's identity, address, e-mail address, phone number, IP number, which sections of the "SITE" they visited, domain type, browser type, date and time information to provide statistical evaluation and customized services.

5. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS

5.1. The information accessed through this "SITE" or provided by the users legally and all the elements (including but not limited to design, text, image, html code and other codes) of the "SITE" (all of them will be called as studies tied to "Turkiye Klinikleri"s copyrights) belongs to "Turkiye Klinikleri". Users do not have the right to resell, process, share, distribute, display or give someone permission to access or to use the "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information and the products under copyright protection by "Turkiye Klinikleri". Within hereby "Terms of Use" unless explicitly permitted by "Turkiye Klinikleri" nobody can reproduce, process, distribute or produce or prepare any study from those under "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyright protection.

5.2. Within hereby "Terms of Use", "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the rights for "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information, the products associated with "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyrights, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trademarks, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trade looks or its all rights for other entity and information it has through this website unless it is explicitly authorized by "Turkiye Klinikleri".

6. CHANGES IN THE TERMS OF USE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" in its sole discretion may change the hereby "Terms of Use" anytime announcing within the "SITE". The changed terms of the hereby "Terms of Use" will become valid when they are announced. Hereby "Terms of Use" cannot be changed by unilateral declarations of users.

7. FORCE MAJEURE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" is not responsible for executing late or never of this hereby "Terms of Use", privacy policy and "USER Contract" in any situation legally taken into account as force majeure. Being late or failure of performance or non-defaulting of this and similar cases like this will not be the case from the viewpoint of "Turkiye Klinikleri", and "Turkiye Klinikleri" will not have any damage liability for these situations. "Force majeure" term will be regarded as outside of the concerned party's reasonable control and any situation that "Turkiye Klinikleri" cannot prevent even though it shows due diligence. Also, force majeure situations include but not limited to natural disasters, rebellion, war, strike, communication problems, infrastructure and internet failure, power cut and bad weather conditions.

8. LAW AND AUTHORISATION TO FOLLOW

Turkish Law will be applied in practicing, interpreting the hereby "Terms of Use" and managing the emerging legal relationships within this "Terms of Use" in case of finding element of foreignness, except for the rules of Turkish conflict of laws. Ankara Courts and Enforcement Offices are entitled in any controversy happened or may happen due to hereby contract.

9. CLOSING AND AGREEMENT

Hereby "Terms of Use" come into force when announced in the "SITE" by "Turkiye Klinikleri". The users are regarded to agree to hereby contract terms by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the contract terms and the changes will be come into force by specifying the version number and the date of change on time it is published in the "SITE".

 

30.03.2014

Privacy Policy

We recommend you to read the terms of use below before you visit our website. In case you agree these terms, following our rules will be to your favor. Please read our Terms of Use thoroughly.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com website belongs to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. and is designed in order to inform physicians in the field of health

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot reach to user’s identity, address, service providers or other information. The users may send this information to the website through forms if they would like to. However, www.turkiyeklinikleri.com may collect your hardware and software information. The information consists of your IP address, browser type, operating system, domain name, access time, and related websites. www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot sell the provided user information (your name, e-mail address, home and work address, phone number) to the third parties, publish it publicly, or keep it in the website. Gathered information has a directing feature to be a source for the website’s visitor profile, reporting and promotion of the services.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com uses the taken information:

-To enhance, improve and maintain the quality of the website

-To generate visitor’s profile and statistical data

-To determine the tendency of the visitors on using our website

-To send print publications/correspondences

-To send press releases or notifications through e-mail

-To generate a list for an event or competition

By using www.turkiyeklinikleri.com you are considered to agree that;

-Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. cannot be hold responsible for any user’s illegal and immoral behavior,

-Terms of use may change from time to time,

-It is not responsible for other websites’ contents it cannot control or the harms they may cause although it uses the connection they provided.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. may block the website to users in the following events:

-Information with wrong, incomplete, deceiving or immoral expressions is recorded to the website,

-Proclamation, advertisement, announcement, libelous expressions are used against natural person or legal identity,

-During various attacks to the website,

-Disruption of the website because of a virus.

Written, visual and audible materials of the website, including the code and the software are under protection by legal legislation.

Without the written consent of Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. the information on the website cannot be downloaded, changed, reproduced, copied, republished, posted or distributed.

All rights of the software and the design of the website belong to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. will be pleased to hear your comments about our terms of use. Please share the subjects you think may enrich our website or if there is any problem regarding our website.

info@turkiyeklinikleri.com