Journal of Literature Pharmacy Sciences

Biyosensörler ve Kullanım Alanları: Geleneksel Derleme
Biosensors and Their Areas of Application: Traditional Review
İrem ÖZERa, Hülya TEZELb, Sonia SANAJOUb, Anıl YİRÜNb,c, Terken BAYDARb, Pınar ERKEKOĞLUb
aTOBB Ekonomi ve Teknoloji Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi, Biyomedikal Bölümü, Ankara, Türkiye
bHacettepe Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Toksikoloji ABD, Ankara, Türkiye
cÇukurova Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Toksikoloji ABD, Adana, Türkiye
J Lit Pharm Sci. 2022;11(1):35-48
doi: 10.5336/pharmsci.2021-86646
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Sensör, amacı ortamdaki değişiklikleri tespit etmek ve bu değişiklikleri bilgisayar gibi elektronik cihazlara göndererek veri elde etmek olan bir cihazdır. Sensörler bir moleküler tanıma sistemi (reseptör), bir fizikokimyasal dönüştürücü ve sinyal işlemcisinden oluşur. Biyosensör ise, temel olarak enzim, nükleik asit, hücre gibi bir biyo-tanıma materyalinden, elektrokimyasal, optik, kütle tabanlı veya kalorimetrik sinyal dönüştürücüden ve bir sinyal işlemcisinden oluşan, biyolojik ve kimyasal maddelerin belirlenmesinde kullanılan cihazdır. Biyosensörler, biyoreseptörlerin türlerine göre enzimatik biyosensörler, protein reseptör bazlı biyosensörler, immünosensörler, DNAaptamer bazlı biyosensörler ve tam hücre biyosensörleri olarak sınıflandırılabilir. İlk üretilen biyosensörlerden sonra büyük gelişmeler kaydedilmiştir. Biyosensörlerin tasarlanması, üretimi ve optimizasyonu için kimya, fizik, mühendislik, biyoloji, tıp, eczacılık gibi farklı disiplinlerin katkıları olmuştur. Ayrıca, günümüzde mikroakışkanlar ile nanoteknoloji gibi yeni teknolojilerin ışığında hızlı bir ilerleme kaydedilmiştir. Bu derlemede biyosensörlerin yapıları, çalışma prensipleri ve biyosensör çeşitleri hakkında bilgiler özetlenecek, biyosensörlerin gıda sektöründeki uygulamaları, gıda toksikolojisi açısından önemi tartışılacaktır. Biyosensörlerin ekotoksikolojik açıdan önemi, biyoterörizm girişimlerindeki uygulamaları, ilaç adayı olabilecek bileşiklerin toksisite potansiyellerinin değerlendirilmesi, özellikle dar terapötik aralığa sahip ilaçların konsantrasyonlarının takip edilerek hasta için güvenli bir tedavi protokolünün oluşturulması ve koronavirüs hastalığı (COVID-19) ile önemi bir kez daha anlaşılan hızlı ve etkin patojen tespiti gibi pek çok farklı alandaki uygulamaları hakkında bilgiler aktarılarak biyosensörlerin geleneksel analiz yöntemlerine göre sağlayabileceği üstünlüklerden de söz edilecektir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Biyosensör; biyoreseptör; ilaç keşfi; toksisite; hızlı tespit
ABSTRACT
A sensor is a device whose purpose is to detect changes in the environment and to obtain data by sending these changes to electronic devices such as computers. The sensors consist of a molecular recognition system (receptor), a physicochemical transducer and signal processor. A biosensor, on the other hand, is a device used for the determination of biological and chemical substances, mainly consisting of a bio-recognition material such as enzyme, nucleic acid, cell, an electrochemical, optical, mass-based or calorimetric signal converter and a signal processor. After first biosensors were produced, great advances were recorded. Different disciplines such as chemistry, physics, engineering, biology, medicine, pharmacy have contributed to design, production and optimization of biosensors. In addition, rapid progress has been made today in light of new technologies such as microfluidics and nanotechnology. In this review, information about structures, working principles and biosensor types of biosensors will be summarized, applications of biosensors in food industry and their importance in terms of food toxicology will be discussed. Ecotoxicological importance of biosensors, their applications in bioterrorism initiatives, evaluation of the toxicity potentials of the compounds that can be drug candidates, creation of a safe treatment protocol for the patient, especially by following the concentrations of drugs with a narrow therapeutic range, and the rapid and effective treatment of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) will be discussed. Information about their applications in many different fields such as pathogen detection will be given and advantages that biosensors can provide over traditional analysis methods will be mentioned.

Keywords: Biosensor; bioreceptor; drug discovery; toxicity; rapid detection
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"Turkiye Klinikleri" in its sole discretion may change the hereby "Terms of Use" anytime announcing within the "SITE". The changed terms of the hereby "Terms of Use" will become valid when they are announced. Hereby "Terms of Use" cannot be changed by unilateral declarations of users.

7. FORCE MAJEURE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" is not responsible for executing late or never of this hereby "Terms of Use", privacy policy and "USER Contract" in any situation legally taken into account as force majeure. Being late or failure of performance or non-defaulting of this and similar cases like this will not be the case from the viewpoint of "Turkiye Klinikleri", and "Turkiye Klinikleri" will not have any damage liability for these situations. "Force majeure" term will be regarded as outside of the concerned party's reasonable control and any situation that "Turkiye Klinikleri" cannot prevent even though it shows due diligence. Also, force majeure situations include but not limited to natural disasters, rebellion, war, strike, communication problems, infrastructure and internet failure, power cut and bad weather conditions.

8. LAW AND AUTHORISATION TO FOLLOW

Turkish Law will be applied in practicing, interpreting the hereby "Terms of Use" and managing the emerging legal relationships within this "Terms of Use" in case of finding element of foreignness, except for the rules of Turkish conflict of laws. Ankara Courts and Enforcement Offices are entitled in any controversy happened or may happen due to hereby contract.

9. CLOSING AND AGREEMENT

Hereby "Terms of Use" come into force when announced in the "SITE" by "Turkiye Klinikleri". The users are regarded to agree to hereby contract terms by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the contract terms and the changes will be come into force by specifying the version number and the date of change on time it is published in the "SITE".

 

30.03.2014

Privacy Policy

We recommend you to read the terms of use below before you visit our website. In case you agree these terms, following our rules will be to your favor. Please read our Terms of Use thoroughly.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com website belongs to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. and is designed in order to inform physicians in the field of health

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot reach to user’s identity, address, service providers or other information. The users may send this information to the website through forms if they would like to. However, www.turkiyeklinikleri.com may collect your hardware and software information. The information consists of your IP address, browser type, operating system, domain name, access time, and related websites. www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot sell the provided user information (your name, e-mail address, home and work address, phone number) to the third parties, publish it publicly, or keep it in the website. Gathered information has a directing feature to be a source for the website’s visitor profile, reporting and promotion of the services.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com uses the taken information:

-To enhance, improve and maintain the quality of the website

-To generate visitor’s profile and statistical data

-To determine the tendency of the visitors on using our website

-To send print publications/correspondences

-To send press releases or notifications through e-mail

-To generate a list for an event or competition

By using www.turkiyeklinikleri.com you are considered to agree that;

-Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. cannot be hold responsible for any user’s illegal and immoral behavior,

-Terms of use may change from time to time,

-It is not responsible for other websites’ contents it cannot control or the harms they may cause although it uses the connection they provided.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. may block the website to users in the following events:

-Information with wrong, incomplete, deceiving or immoral expressions is recorded to the website,

-Proclamation, advertisement, announcement, libelous expressions are used against natural person or legal identity,

-During various attacks to the website,

-Disruption of the website because of a virus.

Written, visual and audible materials of the website, including the code and the software are under protection by legal legislation.

Without the written consent of Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. the information on the website cannot be downloaded, changed, reproduced, copied, republished, posted or distributed.

All rights of the software and the design of the website belong to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. will be pleased to hear your comments about our terms of use. Please share the subjects you think may enrich our website or if there is any problem regarding our website.

info@turkiyeklinikleri.com