Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Ethics-Law and History

.: REVIEW
Normatif Etiğin İzinde Psikiyatrik Bakım
Psychiatric Care in the Normative Ethics
Beyhan BAĞa
aPsikiyatri Hemşiresi, Mannheim, ALMANYA
Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Ethics. 2021;29(2):278-89
doi: 10.5336/mdethic.2020-79657
Article Language: TR
ÖZET
Etik, ahlaki eylem ve davranış bilimi olduğu kadar, ahlakın söz konusu uygulama alanlarının bir yansıması olarak da tanımlanır. Ahlaki açıdan 'hangi eylem doğru?' anlamına gelen 'ne yapılmalı?' sorusuna yanıt aranır. Buna paralel olarak hemşirelik etiği, hemşirelik bakımının felsefi yansımasıdır. Bu yansıma, felsefi kavramlar teorilerini hemşirelerin uygulama bilgisiyle değerlendirilerek analiz edilir ve yorumlanır. Felsefenin etik alanlarından birini tanımlayan normatif etiğin, davranışlarda doğru/yanlış ve iyi/kötüyü incelemesi hemşirelik etiğiyle uyumluluk gösterir. Normatif etik terimi, somut vakalarda ahlaki davranışlarla ilgilenen geniş bir felsefi etik alanında belirli bir davranışla ilgili alternatif davranış tarzlarıyla somut değer yargıları arasında karar verme eylemi veya kararlarla ilgili genel ilkelerin belirlenmesini amaçlamaktadır. Normatif etiğin görevi, ahlaki değerleri ve normları sorgulayarak, sistematik bir yaklaşıma ulaşmak olarak ifade edilebilir. Normatif etikte uygulama alanlarındaki hemşirelik girişimleriyle ilgili araştırma ve analizler genellikle kurumsal ve kamusal politikaların bu uygulamalara etkisi gibi bakım uygulamalarına odaklanır. Buna karşın hemşirelikte etiğin ne anlama geldiği ve normatif eylemi için uygulamalarda karşılaşılan etik sorunlara yönelik ne yapılması gerektiği etikte yeterince açık değildir. Bu nedenle hemşireliğin tüm alt dallarını kapsayan ve her birinin kendi pozisyonlarını eleştirel bir şekilde incelemesi genel anlamda hemşirelik etiğinin gelişmesi için önemlidir. Dolayısıyla ruh sağlığı ve psikiyatri hemşireliğinde normatif etiğin tanımlanması ve uygulamalardaki etik dilemmalarda kullanılması hemşirelik etiğinin gelişimine yardımcı olacaktır. Bu makalede, psikiyatrik bakımın normatif etikteki rolü tartışılacaktır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Ruh sağlığı ve psikiyatrik bakım; normatif etik; hemşirelik
ABSTRACT
Ethics is defined as the science of moral action and behavior as well as a reflection of the aforementioned application areas of morality. Morally 'which action is right?' means 'what to do?' the answer to the question is sought. Parallel to this, nursing ethics is the philosophical reflection of nursing care. This reflection, philosophical concepts are analyzed and interpreted by evaluating theories with the application knowledge of nurses. Normative ethical behaviors, which define one of the ethical areas of philosophy, are compatible with nursing ethics because it thinks right/wrong, good/bad. The term normative ethics is intended to identify general principles of decision-making or decisions between alternative behaviors related to a particular behavior and concrete value judgments in a broad field of philosophical ethics dealing with moral behavior in concrete cases. The task of normative ethics can be expressed as reaching a systematic approach by questioning moral values and norms. Research and analysis of nursing initiatives in practice areas in normative ethics generally focus on care practices such as the impact of institutional and public policies on these practices. On the other hand, it is not clear enough in ethics what ethics mean in nursing and what to do about ethical problems encountered in practice for its normative action. For this reason, it is important for the development of nursing ethics in general, that it covers all sub-branches of nursing and that each critically examines their own positions. Therefore, the definition of normative ethics in mental health and psychiatric nursing and its use in ethical dilemmas in practice will help the development of nursing ethics. This article will discuss the role of psychiatric care in normative ethics.

Keywords: Psychiatric mental health nursing; normative ethics; nursing
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