Journal of Literature Pharmacy Sciences

Nükleer Tıpta Teranostik Uygulamalar: Geleneksel Derleme
Theranostic Applications in Nuclear Medicine: Traditional Review
Hayriye OKŞAŞa, Meliha EKİNCİa, Derya İLEM ÖZDEMİRa
aEge Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Radyofarmasi ABD, İzmir, Türkiye
J Lit Pharm Sci. 2022;11(1):49-60
doi: 10.5336/pharmsci.2021-86197
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Teranostik terimi, 'therapy' ve 'diagnostics' kelimelerinin birleştirilmesiyle oluşmuş ve ilk olarak Funkhouser tarafından kullanılmış yeni bir alandır. Teranostikler, genel anlamıyla hastalık yönetim sürecindeki tanısal yöntemlerin ve tedavi yönteminin bir arada uygulanmasını ifade eden bir kavramdır. Günümüzde uzayan yaşam süresi ve kronik hastalıkların artması ile yeni ilaç teknolojilerinde yaşanan gelişmelerin önemi de gün geçtikçe artmaktadır. Bu yeni ilaç sistemlerinden biri olan ve başta kanser hastalığı olmak üzere birçok hastalığın tanısında veya tedavisinde umut veren kullanımı ile yenilikçi bir yaklaşım sunan teranostikler sayesinde tanısal testlerden elde edilen sonuçlarla hedefe özgü tedavi sistemi birleştirilebilmekte ve böylece kişiselleştirilmiş tıp alanında uygulamalar yapılabilmektedir. Teranostik sistemlerin kullanımı sayesinde hastalıkların tanısı konulabilmekte ve tedavisi uygulanabilmektedir. Bunların yanı sıra hasta tarafından tedaviye verilen cevabın izlenmesi, uygulanan ilaçların etkinliğinin ve güvenliğinin artırılması da amaçlanmaktadır. Teranostik sistemler oldukça yenilikçi bir kavram olup, üzerinde yoğun bir şekilde araştırmalar yapılan güncel konulardan bir tanesidir. Bu derlemede, teranostiklerin manyetik rezonans görüntüleme, optik görüntüleme, bilgisayarlı tomografi, ultrasonografi ve nükleer tıp görüntüleme yöntemleri (pozitron emisyon tomografisi ve tek foton emisyon tomografisi) gibi görüntüleme sistemlerinde kullanılmasıyla ilgili çalışmalar incelenerek örneklendirilmiştir. Ayrıca teranostiklerin kullanılabileceği nükleer onkoloji, enfeksiyon hastalıkları, nörodejeneratif hastalıklar ve nöroinflamasyon, kardiyovasküler hastalıklar ve inflamasyon hastalıkları gibi hastalıklara göre sınıflandırılması yapılarak, teranostiklere genel bir bakış sağlanmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Teranostik nanotıp; radyofarmasötikler; tanısal görüntüleme; kanser; kişiselleştirilmiş tıp
ABSTRACT
The term theranostic is a new field that was formed by combining the words "therapy" and "diagnostics" and was first used by Funkhouser. Theranostics is a concept that expresses the application of diagnostic and treatment methods in the disease management process in general terms. Today, the importance of developments in new drug technologies is increasing day by day with the prolonged life expectancy and the increase in chronic diseases. Thanks to the theranostics, which is one of these new drug systems and offers an innovative approach with its promising use in the diagnosis or treatment of many diseases, especially cancer, the results obtained from diagnostic tests can be combined with a target-specific treatment system, and thus applications can be made in the field of personalized medicine. Thanks to the use of theranostic systems, diseases can be diagnosed and treated. In addition to these, it is also aimed to monitor the response given by the patient to the treatment and to increase the effectiveness and safety of the drugs administered. In this review, studies on the use of theranostics in imaging systems such as magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography and nuclear medicine imaging methods (positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography) are examined and exemplified. In addition, an overview of theranostics is provided by classifying them according to diseases such as nuclear oncology, infectious diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases in which theranostics can be used.

Keywords: Theranostic nanomedicine; radiopharmaceuticals; diagnostic imaging; cancer; personalized medicine
REFERENCES:
  1. Nurili F, Uçmak Vural G, Aras Ö. Teranostik platformlarda moleküler görüntüleme yöntemleri [Molecular imaging methods on theranostic platforms]. Nükleer Tıp Semin. 2015;2:120-7. [Crossref] 
  2. Ekinci M, İlem Özdemir D. Nanoteranostikler [Nanotheranostics]. J Fac Pharm Ankara. 2021;45(1):131-55. [Link] 
  3. Ekinci M, İlem Özdemir D. Radyofarmasötikler ve teranostikler [Radiopharmaceuticals and theranostics]. J Lit Pharm Sci. 2021;10(1):119-32. [Crossref] 
  4. Jain T, Kumar S, Dutta PK. Theranostics: a way of modern medical diagnostics and the role of chitosan. J Mol Genet Med. 2015;9(1):1-5. [Link] 
  5. Shetty Y, Prabhu P, Prabhakar B. Emerging vistas in theranostic medicine. Int J Pharm. 2019;558:29-42. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  6. Lee DY, Li KC. Molecular theranostics: a primer for the imaging professional. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197(2):318-24. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  7. Aydoğdu A, Aydoğdu Y, Yakıncı ZD. Temel radyolojik inceleme yöntemlerini tanıma [Recognition of basic radiological investigation methods]. İÜ Sağlık Hizmetleri Meslek Yüksekokulu Derg. 2017;5(2):44-53. [Link] 
  8. Wang C, Ravi S, Garapati US, Das M, Howell M, MallelaMallela J, et al. Multifunctional chitosan magnetic-graphene (CMG) nanoparticles: a theranostic platform for tumor-targeted co-delivery of drugs, genes and mri contrast agents. J Mater Chem B. 2013;1(35):4396-405. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  9. Kim KS, Park W, Hu J, Bae YH, Na K. A cancer-recognizable MRI contrast agents using pH-responsive polymeric micelle. Biomaterials. 2014;35(1):337-43. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  10. Choi KY, Jeon EJ, Yoon HY, Lee BS, Na JH, Min KH, et al. Theranostic nanoparticles based on PEGylated hyaluronic acid for the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. Biomaterials. 2012;33(26):6186-93. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  11. Tan WB, Jiang S, Zhang Y. Quantum-dot based nanoparticles for targeted silencing of HER2/neu gene via RNA interference. Biomaterials. 2007;28(8):1565-71. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  12. Srinivasan S, Manchanda R, Fernandez-Fernandez A, Lei T, McGoron AJ. Near-infrared fluorescing IR820-chitosan conjugate for multifunctional cancer theranostic applications. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2013;119:52-9. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  13. Shi H, Niu M, Tan L, Liu T, Shao H, Fu C, et al. A smart all-in-one theranostic platform for CT imaging guided tumor microwave thermotherapy based on IL@ZrO2 nanoparticles. Chem Sci. 2015;6(8):5016-26. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  14. Hyafil F, Cornily JC, Feig JE, Gordon R, Vucic E, Amirbekian V, et al. Noninvasive detection of macrophages using a nanoparticulate contrast agent for computed tomography. Nat Med. 2007;13(5):636-41. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  15. Min HS, You DG, Son S, Jeon S, Park JH, Lee S, et al. Echogenic glycol chitosan nanoparticles for ultrasound-triggered cancer theranostics. Theranostics. 2015;5(12):1402-18. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  16. Gao Z, Kennedy AM, Christensen DA, Rapoport NY. Drug-loaded nano/microbubbles for combining ultrasonography and targeted chemotherapy. Ultrasonics. 2008;48(4):260-70. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  17. Ekinci M, İlem Özdemir D. Current approaches in nanomedicine. Arch Nano Op Acc J. 2020;2(3):183-4. [Link] 
  18. Kraeber-Bodéré F, Barbet J. Challenges in nuclear medicine: innovative theranostic tools for personalized medicine. Front Med (Lausanne). 2014;1:16. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  19. Kotzerke J, Andreeff M, Wunderlich G, Wiggermann P, Zöphel K. Ventilations-Perfusions-Lungenszintigraphie mit der PET und 68Ga-markierten Radiopharmaka [Ventilation-perfusion-lungscintigraphy using PET and 68Ga-labeled radiopharmaceuticals]. Nuklearmedizin. 2010;49(6):203-8. German. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  20. Kao HW, Lin YY, Chen CC, Chi KH, Tien DC, Hsia CC, et al. Evaluation of EGFR-targeted radioimmuno-gold-nanoparticles as a theranostic agent in a tumor animal model. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23(11):3180-5. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  21. Chen F, Hong H, Zhang Y, Valdovinos HF, Shi S, Kwon GS, et al. In vivo tumor targeting and image-guided drug delivery with antibody-conjugated, radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles. ACS Nano. 2013;7(10):9027-39. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  22. Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68(6):394-424. Erratum in: CA Cancer J Clin. 2020;70(4):313. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  23. Ekinci M, İlem Özdemir D. İyonlaştırıcı radyasyon ve onkolitik virüsler ile kombine tedavinin etkileri [The effects of combination therapy of ionizing radiation and oncolytic viruses]. FABAD J Pharm Sci. 2021;46(1):79-92. [Link] 
  24. Gökoğlan E, Ekinci M, Özgenç E, İlem Özdemir D, Aşıkoğlu M. Radyasyon ve insan sağlığı üzerindeki etkileri [Radiation and its effects on human health]. Anatol Clin. 2020;25(3):289-94. [Link] 
  25. Jo SD, Ku SH, Won YY, Kim SH, Kwon IC. Targeted nanotheranostics for future personalized medicine: recent progress in cancer therapy. Theranostics. 2016;6(9):1362-77. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  26. Jadvar H, Chen X, Cai W, Mahmood U. Radiotheranostics in cancer diagnosis and management. Radiology. 2018;286(2):388-400. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  27. Baum RP, Kulkarni HR. THERANOSTICS: from molecular imaging using Ga-68 labeled tracers and PET/CT to personalized radionuclide therapy - the bad berka experience. Theranostics. 2012;2(5):437-47. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  28. Özkan E, Soydal Ç. Nöroendokrin tümörlerde teranostikler [Theranostics in neuroendocrine tumors]. Nükleer Tıp Semin. 2015;2:103-8. [Crossref] 
  29. Farolfi A, Fendler W, Iravani A, Haberkorn U, Hicks R, Herrmann K, et al. Theranostics for advanced prostate cancer: current indications and future developments. Eur Urol Oncol. 2019;2(2):152-62. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  30. Virgolini I, Decristoforo C, Haug A, Fanti S, Uprimny C. Current status of theranostics in prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2018;45(3):471-95. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  31. Bluemel C, Hahner S, Heinze B, Fassnacht M, Kroiss M, Bley TA, et al. Investigating the chemokine receptor 4 as potential theranostic target in adrenocortical cancer patients. Clin Nucl Med. 2017;42(1):e29-34. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  32. Khalid U, Vi C, Henri J, Macdonald J, Eu P, Mandarano G, et al. Radiolabelled aptamers for theranostic treatment of cancer. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2018;12(1):2. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  33. Kaul A, Chaturvedi S, Attri A, Kalra M, Mishra AK. Targeted theranostic liposomes: Rifampicin and ofloxacin loaded pegylated liposomes for theranostic application in mycobacterial infections. RSC Adv. 2016;6(34):28919-26. [Crossref] 
  34. Mak WC, Cheung KY, Orban J, Lee CJ, Turner AP, Griffith M. Surface-engineered contact lens as an advanced theranostic platform for modulation and detection of viral infection. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015;7(45):25487-94. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  35. Huang JF, Zhong J, Chen GP, Lin ZT, Deng Y, Liu YL, et al. A hydrogel-based hybrid theranostic contact lens for fungal keratitis. ACS Nano. 2016;10(7):6464-73. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  36. Portnoy E, Vakruk N, Bishara A, Shmuel M, Magdassi S, Golenser J, et al. Indocyanine green liposomes for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of cerebral malaria. Theranostics. 2016;6(2):167-76. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  37. Dao P, Ye F, Liu Y, Du ZY, Zhang K, Dong CZ, et al. Development of phenothiazine-based theranostic compounds that act both as inhibitors of β-amyloid aggregation and as imaging probes for amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2017;8(4):798-806. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  38. Tang J, Lobatto ME, Read JC, Mieszawska AJ, Fayad ZA, Mulder WJ. Nanomedical theranostics in cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep. 2012;5(1):19-25. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  39. Winter PM, Neubauer AM, Caruthers SD, Harris TD, Robertson JD, Williams TA, et al. Endothelial alpha(v)beta3 integrin-targeted fumagillin nanoparticles inhibit angiogenesis in atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26(9):2103-9. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  40. Lanza GM, Yu X, Winter PM, Abendschein DR, Karukstis KK, Scott MJ, et al. Targeted antiproliferative drug delivery to vascular smooth muscle cells with a magnetic resonance imaging nanoparticle contrast agent: implications for rational therapy of restenosis. Circulation. 2002;106(22):2842-7. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  41. Peters D, Kastantin M, Kotamraju VR, Karmali PP, Gujraty K, Tirrell M, et al. Targeting atherosclerosis by using modular, multifunctional micelles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(24):9815-9. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  42. Sun Z, Huang P, Tong G, Lin J, Jin A, Rong P, et al. VEGF-loaded graphene oxide as theranostics for multi-modality imaging-monitored targeting therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic muscle. Nanoscale. 2013;5(15):6857-66. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  43. Albuquerque J, Moura CC, Sarmento B, Reis S. Solid lipid nanoparticles: a potential multifunctional approach towards rheumatoid arthritis theranostics. Molecules. 2015;20(6):11103-18. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  44. Cho H, Stuart JM, Magid R, Danila DC, Hunsaker T, Pinkhassik E, et al. Theranostic immunoliposomes for osteoarthritis. Nanomedicine. 2014;10(3):619-27. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  45. Lee A, De Mei C, Fereira M, Marotta R, Yoon HY, Kim K, et al. Dexamethasone-loaded polymeric nanoconstructs for monitoring and treating inflammatory bowel disease. Theranostics. 2017;7(15):3653-66. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 

Login



Contact


Ortadoğu Reklam Tanıtım Yayıncılık Turizm Eğitim İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş.

.: Address

Turkocagi Caddesi No:30 06520 Balgat / ANKARA
Phone: +90 312 286 56 56
Fax: +90 312 220 04 70
E-mail: info@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Manuscript Editing Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 2
E-mail: yaziisleri@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: English Language Redaction

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 145
E-mail: tkyayindestek@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Marketing Sales-Project Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 142
E-mail: reklam@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Subscription and Public Relations Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 118
E-mail: abone@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Customer Services

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 118
E-mail: satisdestek@turkiyeklinikleri.com

1. TERMS OF USE

1.1. To use the web pages with http://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com domain name or the websites reached through the sub domain names attached to the domain name (They will be collectively referred as "SITE"), please read the conditions below. If you do not accept these terms, please cease to use the "SITE." "SITE" owner reserves the right to change the information on the website, forms, contents, the "SITE," "SITE" terms of use anytime they want.

1.2. The owner of the "SITE" is Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. (From now on it is going to be referred as "Turkiye Klinikleri", shortly) and it resides at Turkocagi cad. No:30, 06520 Balgat Ankara. The services in the "SITE" are provided by "Turkiye Klinikleri."

1.3. Anyone accessing the "SITE" with or without a fee whether they are a natural person or a legal identity is considered to agree these terms of use. In this contract hereby, "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the stated terms anytime. These changes will be published in the "SITE" periodically and they will be valid when they are published. Any natural person or legal identity benefiting from and reaching to the "SITE" are considered to be agreed to any change on hereby contract terms done by "Turkiye Klinikleri."

1.4. The "Terms of Use" hereby is published in the website with the last change on March 30th 2014 and the "SITE" is activated by enabling the access to everyone. The "Terms of Use" hereby is also a part of the any "USER Contract" was and/or will be done with the users using "Turkiye Klinikleri" services with or without a fee an inseparable.

2. DEFINITIONS

2.1. "SITE": A website offering different kind of services and context with a certain frame determined by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and it is accessible on-line on http://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com domain name and/or subdomains connected to the domain name.

2.2. USER: A natural person or a legal identity accessing to the "SITE" through online settings.

2.3. LINK: A link enabling to access to another website through the "SITE", the files, the context or through another website to the "SITE", the files and the context.

2.4. CONTEXT: Any visual, literary and auditory images published in the "Turkiye Klinikleri", "SITE" and/or any website or any accessible information, file, picture, number/figures, price, etc.

2.5. "USER CONTRACT": An electronically signed contract between a natural or a legal identity benefiting from special services "Turkiye Klinikleri" will provide and "Turkiye Klinikleri".

3. SCOPE OF THE SERVICES

3.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine the scope and quality of the services via the "SITE".

3.2. To benefit the services of "Turkiye Klinikleri" "SITE", the "USER" must deliver the features that will be specified by "Turkiye Klinikleri". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change this necessity any time single-sided.

3.3. Not for a limited number, the services "Turkiye Klinikleri" will provide through the "SITE" for a certain price or for free are;

- Providing scientific articles, books and informative publications for health industry.

- Providing structural, statistical and editorial support to article preparation stage for scientific journals.

4. GENERAL PROVISIONS

4.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine which of the services and contents provided in the "SITE" will be charged.

4.2. People benefiting from the services provided by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and using the website can use the "SITE" only according to the law and only for personal reasons. Users have the criminal and civil liability for every process and action they take in the "SITE". Every USER agrees, declares and undertakes that they will not proceed by any function or action infringement of rights of "Turkiye Klinikleri"s and/or other third parties', they are the exclusive right holder on usage, processing, storage, made public and revealing any written, visual or auditory information reported to Turkiye Klinikleri" and/or "SITE" to the third parties. "USER" agrees and undertakes that s/he will not duplicate, copy, distribute, process, the pictures, text, visual and auditory images, video clips, files, databases, catalogs and lists within the "SITE", s/he will not be using these actions or with other ways to compete with "Turkiye Klinikleri", directly or indirectly.

4.3. The services provided and the context published within the "SITE" by third parties is not under the responsibility of "Turkiye Klinikleri", institutions collaborated with "Turkiye Klinikleri", "Turkiye Klinikleri" employee and directors, "Turkiye Klinikleri" authorized salespeople. Commitment to accuracy and legality of the published information, context, visual and auditory images provided by any third party are under the full responsibility of the third party. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not promise and guarantee the safety, accuracy and legality of the services and context provided by a third party.

4.4. "USER"s cannot act against "Turkiye Klinikleri", other "USER"s and third parties by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" has no direct and/or indirect responsibility for any damage a third party suffered or will suffer regarding "USER"s actions on the "SITE" against the rules of the hereby "Terms of Use" and the law.

4.5. "USER"s accept and undertake that the information and context they provided to the "SITE" are accurate and legal. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is not liable and responsible for promising and guaranteeing the verification of the information and context transmitted to "Turkiye Klinikleri" by the "USER"s, or uploaded, changed and provided through the "SITE" by them and whether these information are safe, accurate and legal.

4.6. "USER"s agree and undertake that they will not perform any action leading to unfair competition, weakening the personal and commercial credit of "Turkiye Klinikleri" and a third party,  encroaching and attacking on personal rights within the "SITE" in accordance with the Turkish Commercial Code Law.

4.7. "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the right to change the services and the context within the "SITE"  anytime. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use this right without any notification and timelessly. "USER"s have to make the changes and/or corrections "Turkiye Klinikleri" required immediately. Any changes and/or corrections that are required by "Turkiye Klinikleri", may be made by "Turkiye Klinikleri" when needed. Any harm, criminal and civil liability resulted or will result from changes and/or corrections required by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and were not made on time by the "USER"s belongs completely to the users.

4.8. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may give links through the "SITE" to other websites and/or "CONTEXT"s and/or folders that are outside of their control and owned and run by third parties. These links are provided for ease of reference only and do not hold qualification for support the respective web SITE or the admin or declaration or guarantee for the information inside. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not hold any responsibility over the web-sites connected through the links on the "SITE", folders and context, the services or products on the websites provided through these links or their context.

4.9. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use the information provided to them by the "USERS" through the "SITE" in line with the terms of the "PRIVACY POLICY" and "USER CONTRACT". It may process the information or classify and save them on a database. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may also use the USER's or visitor's identity, address, e-mail address, phone number, IP number, which sections of the "SITE" they visited, domain type, browser type, date and time information to provide statistical evaluation and customized services.

5. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS

5.1. The information accessed through this "SITE" or provided by the users legally and all the elements (including but not limited to design, text, image, html code and other codes) of the "SITE" (all of them will be called as studies tied to "Turkiye Klinikleri"s copyrights) belongs to "Turkiye Klinikleri". Users do not have the right to resell, process, share, distribute, display or give someone permission to access or to use the "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information and the products under copyright protection by "Turkiye Klinikleri". Within hereby "Terms of Use" unless explicitly permitted by "Turkiye Klinikleri" nobody can reproduce, process, distribute or produce or prepare any study from those under "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyright protection.

5.2. Within hereby "Terms of Use", "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the rights for "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information, the products associated with "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyrights, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trademarks, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trade looks or its all rights for other entity and information it has through this website unless it is explicitly authorized by "Turkiye Klinikleri".

6. CHANGES IN THE TERMS OF USE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" in its sole discretion may change the hereby "Terms of Use" anytime announcing within the "SITE". The changed terms of the hereby "Terms of Use" will become valid when they are announced. Hereby "Terms of Use" cannot be changed by unilateral declarations of users.

7. FORCE MAJEURE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" is not responsible for executing late or never of this hereby "Terms of Use", privacy policy and "USER Contract" in any situation legally taken into account as force majeure. Being late or failure of performance or non-defaulting of this and similar cases like this will not be the case from the viewpoint of "Turkiye Klinikleri", and "Turkiye Klinikleri" will not have any damage liability for these situations. "Force majeure" term will be regarded as outside of the concerned party's reasonable control and any situation that "Turkiye Klinikleri" cannot prevent even though it shows due diligence. Also, force majeure situations include but not limited to natural disasters, rebellion, war, strike, communication problems, infrastructure and internet failure, power cut and bad weather conditions.

8. LAW AND AUTHORISATION TO FOLLOW

Turkish Law will be applied in practicing, interpreting the hereby "Terms of Use" and managing the emerging legal relationships within this "Terms of Use" in case of finding element of foreignness, except for the rules of Turkish conflict of laws. Ankara Courts and Enforcement Offices are entitled in any controversy happened or may happen due to hereby contract.

9. CLOSING AND AGREEMENT

Hereby "Terms of Use" come into force when announced in the "SITE" by "Turkiye Klinikleri". The users are regarded to agree to hereby contract terms by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the contract terms and the changes will be come into force by specifying the version number and the date of change on time it is published in the "SITE".

 

30.03.2014

Privacy Policy

We recommend you to read the terms of use below before you visit our website. In case you agree these terms, following our rules will be to your favor. Please read our Terms of Use thoroughly.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com website belongs to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. and is designed in order to inform physicians in the field of health

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot reach to user’s identity, address, service providers or other information. The users may send this information to the website through forms if they would like to. However, www.turkiyeklinikleri.com may collect your hardware and software information. The information consists of your IP address, browser type, operating system, domain name, access time, and related websites. www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot sell the provided user information (your name, e-mail address, home and work address, phone number) to the third parties, publish it publicly, or keep it in the website. Gathered information has a directing feature to be a source for the website’s visitor profile, reporting and promotion of the services.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com uses the taken information:

-To enhance, improve and maintain the quality of the website

-To generate visitor’s profile and statistical data

-To determine the tendency of the visitors on using our website

-To send print publications/correspondences

-To send press releases or notifications through e-mail

-To generate a list for an event or competition

By using www.turkiyeklinikleri.com you are considered to agree that;

-Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. cannot be hold responsible for any user’s illegal and immoral behavior,

-Terms of use may change from time to time,

-It is not responsible for other websites’ contents it cannot control or the harms they may cause although it uses the connection they provided.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. may block the website to users in the following events:

-Information with wrong, incomplete, deceiving or immoral expressions is recorded to the website,

-Proclamation, advertisement, announcement, libelous expressions are used against natural person or legal identity,

-During various attacks to the website,

-Disruption of the website because of a virus.

Written, visual and audible materials of the website, including the code and the software are under protection by legal legislation.

Without the written consent of Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. the information on the website cannot be downloaded, changed, reproduced, copied, republished, posted or distributed.

All rights of the software and the design of the website belong to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. will be pleased to hear your comments about our terms of use. Please share the subjects you think may enrich our website or if there is any problem regarding our website.

info@turkiyeklinikleri.com