Journal of Literature Pharmacy Sciences

Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. Bitkisinin Botanik Özellikleri, Geleneksel Kullanımı ve Biyolojik Aktivitesinin İncelenmesi: Sistematik Derleme
Investigation of Botanic Properties, Traditional Use and Biological Activity of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. Plant: Systematic Review
Elif BOZKURTa, Yasin BAYIRb
aAtatürk Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Tıbbi Farmakoloji ABD, Erzurum, TÜRKİYE
bAtatürk Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Biyokimya ABD, Erzurum, TÜRKİYE
J Lit Pharm Sci. 2021;10(3):372-84
doi: 10.5336/pharmsci.2020-73472
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
İnsanoğlu, var olduğu günden beri karşılaştıkları hastalıkların tedavisinde bitkileri sıklıkla kullanmış ve kullanmaya devam etmektedir. Günümüzde de hem geçmişte kullanılan tedavilerin yeniden ortaya çıkarılması hem de yeni araştırmalar neticesinde tedavi amaçlı kullanılan bitki sayısı devamlı bir artış göstermektedir. Kimyasal ilaç sektörünün gelişmesi bitkilerin ve bitkisel ürünlerin ikinci plana atılmasına sebep olmuşsa da bitkilerin hastalıkların tedavisindeki rolü yadsınamayacak bir gerçektir. Çaşır bitkisi (Prangos ferulacea (L.) Umbelliferae familyasına ait bir bitki olup, tıbbi ve besin olarak kullanımı çok eskilere dayanır. Besin olarak özellikle gövdesi kullanılır. Dünyanın pek çok ülkesinde halk hekimliğinde kullanılan çaşırın meyve ve köklerinden elde edilen ekstrelerinin sindirim bozukluğu, yara iyileşmesi, antispazmodik, iltihap önleyici, karminatif, antihelmintik, emoliyan ve kanamayı durdurma gibi birçok kullanıma sahip olduğu belirtilmiştir. Ayrıca besin değerinin yüksek olması, insan sağlığı bakımından önemli olması, fitoterapide çok yönlü kullanım alanına ve toksik olmayan geri bildirimlere sahip olması nedeniyle de bitki dikkat çekmektedir. Bu derlemede de literatür taraması ile çaşır bitkisinin insan sağlığı açısından içerdiği yararlı kimyasal bileşenler başta olmak üzere bitkinin botanik özellikleri, geleneksel kullanımı ve biyolojik aktivitesinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ülkemizde çaşır bitkisi geniş bir yayılım göstermesine rağmen bitkiyle ilgili bilgiler ve araştırmalar üzücü derecede çok azdır. Hatta bu konuda yabancı kaynaklar daha fazladır. Bu yüzden özellikle bu bitkinin daha çok araştırılması ve bitkinin çeşitli organlarındaki ekstrelerinin etki mekanizmalarını tam olarak ortaya koyabilmek için yeni araştırmaların planlanarak yapılması önerilmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Çaşır; Prangos; Prangos ferulacea; Umbelliferae
ABSTRACT
Human beings have frequently using plants in the treatment of diseases since its existence. Today, the number of plants used for therapeutic purposes has been increasing continuously both as a result of the re-emergence of past treatments and as a result of new researches. Although the development of the chemical pharmaceutical sector has caused plants and herbal products to be put to a secondary level, the role of plants in the treatment of diseases is an undeniable fact. Çaşır (Prangos ferulacea (L.) ) which is a plant belonging to the family Umbelliferae, has been used for medical and nutritional purposes since very old. In particular, the stem of the plant is used as food. It has been stated that extracts obtained from the fruits and roots of çaşır which are used in folk medicine in many countries of the World has many uses such as dyspepsia, wound healing, antispazmodic, antiinflammatory, carminative, antihelminthic, emollient and haemostasia. In addition, the plant attracts attention due to its high nutritional value, importance for human health, versatile use in phytotherapy and nontoxic feedbacks. In this review, it was aimed to examine the botanical properties, traditional use and biological activity of the plant, especially the beneficial chemical components of çaşır plant in terms of human health. Unfortunately, the information and research about çaşır is too limited althouh it has a wide spreading area in Turkey. Even foreign literatures is more than Turkish ones on this topic. So we suggest that the researches on this plant should be planned to fully determine the effects mechanisms of the extracts from different parts of the plant.

Keywords: Çaşır; Prangos; Prangos ferulacea; Umbelliferae
REFERENCES:
  1. Orrell TM, Roskov Y, Kunze T, Paglinawan L, Nicolson D, Culham A, et al. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 2013 Annual Checklist. 2013. [Link] 
  2. Kafash-Farkhad N, Asadi-Samani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. A review on phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. Life Science Journal. 2013;10(Suppl 8):360-7. [Link] 
  3. Cesur C, Coşge Şenkal B, Yaman C, Uskutoğlu T, Murat K. Antioxidant activity of fruit extracts of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. from Turkey. Iğdır Univ J Inst Sci & Tech. 2017;7(4):249-56. [Crossref] 
  4. Abbas-Mohammadi M, Moridi Farimani M, Salehi P, Nejad Ebrahimi S, Sonboli A, Kelso C, et al. Acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory activity of Iranian plants: combined HPLC/bioassay-guided fractionation, molecular networking and docking strategies for the dereplication of active compounds. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2018;158:471-9. [Crossref] [PubMed] 
  5. Ahmed J. Konya ilinde yetişen Prangos Lindl.(Umbelliferae) türleri üzerinde farmasötik botanik yönünden araştırmalar [Doktora tezi]. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi; 2008. [Link] 
  6. Atiker Ş. Türkiye Falcaria Fabr. ve Gongylosciadium Rech. f.(Apiaceae) cinslerinin moleküler, morfolojik, anatomik ve palinolojik yönden araştırılması [Yüksek lisans tezi]. Konya: Selçuk Üniversitesi; 2015. [Link] 
  7. Güngör F. Yabani olarak yetişen çiriş (Eremurus spectabilis (BİEB.) FEDTSCH, çaşır (Prangos ferulacea LİNDL.) ve sarı çaşır (Hippomarathrum microcarpum BİEB.) bitkilerinin morfolojik ve biyolojik özellikleri ile kültüre alınabilme imkanları üzerine araştırmalar [Doktora tezi]. Erzurum: Atatürk Üniversitesi. 2002. [Link] 
  8. Yousefi K, Hamedeyazdan S, Hodaei D, Lotfipour F, Baradaran B, Orangi M, et al. An in vitro ethnopharmacological study on Prangos ferulacea: a wound healing agent. Bioimpacts. 2017;7(2):75-82. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC] 
  9. Korkmaz M, Alparslan Z. Ergan Dağı'nın (Erzincan-Türkiye) etnobotanik özellikleri [Ethnobotanical properties of Ergan Mountain (Erzincan-Turkey)]. Bağbahçe Bilim Dergisi. 2014;1(3):1-31. [Link] 
  10. Bulut G, Tuzlacı E, Doğan A, Şenkardeş İ. An ethnopharmacological review on the Turkish Apiaceae species. J. Fac. Pharm. Istanbul. 2014;44(2):163-79. [Link] 
  11. Nateri AS, Nouri L. Extraction of yellow natural dye for wool dyeing. International Dyer. 2013;198(5):39-41. [Link] 
  12. Dagdelen S, Bilenler T, Durmaz G, Gokbulut I, Hayaloglu AA, Karabulut I. Volatile composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of herbal plants used in the manufacture of van herby (OTLU) cheese. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2014;38(4):1716-25. [Crossref] 
  13. Ozcan MM, Dursun N, Arslan D. Some nutritional properties of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl and Rheum ribes L. stems growing wild in Turkey. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007;58(2):162-7. [Crossref] [PubMed] 
  14. Delnavazi MR, Soleimani M, Hadjiakhoondi A, Yass N. Isolation of phenolic derivatives and essential oil analysis of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. aerial parts. Iran J Pharm Res. 2017;16(Suppl):207-15. [PubMed] [PMC] 
  15. Aydın B. Tümör küçültücü etkiye sahip myrosinaz enziminin çaşir (Prangos ferulacea L.) ve yaban kerevizi (Smyrnıum olusatrum L.) bitkilerinden saflaştırılması ve karakterize edilmesi [Doktora tezi]. Erzurum: Atatürk Üniversitesi; 2011. [Link] 
  16. Nadaroğlu H, Demir Y, Demir N. Çaşır (Prangos ferulacea) bitkisinden peroksidaz enziminin saflaştırılması ve tanımlanması. XX. Ulusal Kimya Kongresi. Kayseri: Erciyes Üniversitesi; 2006. [Link] 
  17. Bruno M, Ilardi V, Lupidi G, Quassinti L, Bramucci M, Fiorini D, et al. The nonvolatile and volatile metabolites of Prangos ferulacea and their biological properties. Planta Med. 2019;85(11-12):815-24. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  18. Kazerooni T, Mousavizadeh K, Abdollahee A, Sarkarian M, Sattar A. Abortifacient effect of Prangos ferulacia on pregnant rats. Contraception. 2006;73(5):554-6. [Crossref] [PubMed] 
  19. Shokoohinia Y, Sajjadi SE, Gholamzadeh S, Fattahi A, Behbahani M. Antiviral and cytotoxic evaluation of coumarins from Prangos ferulacea. Pharm Biol. 2014;52(12):1543-9. [Crossref] [PubMed] 
  20. Shokoohinia Y, Hosseinzadeh L, Alipour M, Mostafaie A, Mohammadi-Motlagh HR. Comparative evaluation of cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of several coumarins on human cancer cell lines: osthole induces apoptosis in p53-deficient H1299 cells. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2014;2014:847574. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC] 
  21. Shokoohinia Y, Hosseinzadeh L, Moieni-Arya M, Mostafaie A, Mohammadi-Motlagh HR. Osthole attenuates doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells through inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:156848. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC] 
  22. Ercan FS. Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to detect DNA damage induced by Prangos ferulacea (Umbelliferae) essential oil against the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Archives of Biological Sciences. 2015;67(1):235-9. [Crossref] 
  23. Nazemisalman B, Vahabi S, Yazdinejad A, Haghghi F, Jam MS, Heydari F. Comparison of antimicrobial effect of Ziziphora tenuior, Dracocephalum moldavica, Ferula gummosa, and Prangos ferulacea essential oil with chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study. Dental Research Journal. 2018;15(2):111. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  24. Asadi-Samani M, Kafash-Farkhad NK, Azimi N, Fasihi A, Alinia-Ahandani E, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2015;5(2):146-57. [Crossref] 
  25. Bazdar M, Sadeghi H, Hosseini S. Evaluation of oil profiles, total phenols and phenolic compounds in Prangos ferulacea leaves and flowers and their effects on antioxidant activities. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2019;14(1):418-23. [Crossref] 
  26. Mavi A, Terzi Z, Ozgen U, Yildirim A, Coşkun M. Antioxidant properties of some medicinal plants: Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae), Sedum sempervivoides (Crassulaceae), Malva neglecta (Malvaceae), Cruciata taurica (Rubiaceae), Rosa pimpinellifolia (Rosaceae), Galium verum subsp. verum (Rubiaceae), Urtica dioica (Urticaceae). Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27(5):702-5. [Crossref] [PubMed] 
  27. Zargaran A, Zarshenas MM, Karimi A, Yarmohammadi H, Borhani-Haghighi A. Management of stroke as described by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) in the Canon of Medicine. Int J Cardiol. 2013;169(4):233-7. [Crossref] [PubMed] 
  28. Azadpour Motlagh A, Dolatian M, Mojab F, Nasiri M, Ezatpour B, Sahranavard Y, et al. The effect of Prangos Ferulacea vaginal cream on accelerating the recovery of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2018;6(2):100-10. [PubMed] [PMC] 
  29. Kafash Farkhad N, Farokhi F, Tukmacki A, Soltani Band K. Hydro-alcoholic extract of the root of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl can improve serum glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2012;2(4):179-87. [PubMed] [PMC] 
  30. Farokhi F, Kaffash Farkhad N, Togmechi A, Soltani Band K. Preventive effects of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindle on liver damage of diabetic rats induced by alloxan. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2012;2(2):63-71. [PubMed] [PMC] 
  31. Shokoohinia Y, Bazargan S, Miraghaee S, Javadirad E, Farahani F, Hosseinzadeh L. Safety assessment of osthole isolated from Prangos ferulacea: acute and subchronic toxicities and modulation of cytochrome P450. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products. 2017;12(3):e63764. [Crossref] 
  32. Razavi S. Chemical composition and some allelopathic aspects of essential oils of (Prangos ferulacea L.) Lindl at different stages of growth. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2012;14(3):349-56. [Link] 
  33. Sadeghi H, Bazdar M. Effects of Prangos ferulacea aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from different organs on the regeneration of Trifolium resupinatum. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 2018;40(3). [Crossref] 
  34. Bazdar M, Sadeghi H. Antioxidant activity of Trifolium resupinatum L. Exposed to different extracts from leaves, flowers and shoots of Prangos ferulacea. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;15(4):e0303. [Crossref] 
  35. Mil B, Denk E. [Erzurum Cuisine Local Products Usage Level in Hotel Restaurant Menus: The Example of Palandoken]. Uluslararası Sosyal ve Ekonomik Bilimler Dergisi. 2015;5(2):1-7. [Link] 
  36. Herrnstad I, Heyn C. Amonographic study of the genus Prangos (Umbelliferae) Boissiera.1997;26:91. [Link] 

Login



Contact


Ortadoğu Reklam Tanıtım Yayıncılık Turizm Eğitim İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş.

.: Address

Turkocagi Caddesi No:30 06520 Balgat / ANKARA
Phone: +90 312 286 56 56
Fax: +90 312 220 04 70
E-mail: info@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Manuscript Editing Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 2
E-mail: yaziisleri@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: English Language Redaction

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 145
E-mail: tkyayindestek@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Marketing Sales-Project Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 142
E-mail: reklam@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Subscription and Public Relations Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 118
E-mail: abone@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Customer Services

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 118
E-mail: satisdestek@turkiyeklinikleri.com

1. TERMS OF USE

1.1. To use the web pages with http://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com domain name or the websites reached through the sub domain names attached to the domain name (They will be collectively referred as "SITE"), please read the conditions below. If you do not accept these terms, please cease to use the "SITE." "SITE" owner reserves the right to change the information on the website, forms, contents, the "SITE," "SITE" terms of use anytime they want.

1.2. The owner of the "SITE" is Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. (From now on it is going to be referred as "Turkiye Klinikleri", shortly) and it resides at Turkocagi cad. No:30, 06520 Balgat Ankara. The services in the "SITE" are provided by "Turkiye Klinikleri."

1.3. Anyone accessing the "SITE" with or without a fee whether they are a natural person or a legal identity is considered to agree these terms of use. In this contract hereby, "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the stated terms anytime. These changes will be published in the "SITE" periodically and they will be valid when they are published. Any natural person or legal identity benefiting from and reaching to the "SITE" are considered to be agreed to any change on hereby contract terms done by "Turkiye Klinikleri."

1.4. The "Terms of Use" hereby is published in the website with the last change on March 30th 2014 and the "SITE" is activated by enabling the access to everyone. The "Terms of Use" hereby is also a part of the any "USER Contract" was and/or will be done with the users using "Turkiye Klinikleri" services with or without a fee an inseparable.

2. DEFINITIONS

2.1. "SITE": A website offering different kind of services and context with a certain frame determined by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and it is accessible on-line on http://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com domain name and/or subdomains connected to the domain name.

2.2. USER: A natural person or a legal identity accessing to the "SITE" through online settings.

2.3. LINK: A link enabling to access to another website through the "SITE", the files, the context or through another website to the "SITE", the files and the context.

2.4. CONTEXT: Any visual, literary and auditory images published in the "Turkiye Klinikleri", "SITE" and/or any website or any accessible information, file, picture, number/figures, price, etc.

2.5. "USER CONTRACT": An electronically signed contract between a natural or a legal identity benefiting from special services "Turkiye Klinikleri" will provide and "Turkiye Klinikleri".

3. SCOPE OF THE SERVICES

3.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine the scope and quality of the services via the "SITE".

3.2. To benefit the services of "Turkiye Klinikleri" "SITE", the "USER" must deliver the features that will be specified by "Turkiye Klinikleri". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change this necessity any time single-sided.

3.3. Not for a limited number, the services "Turkiye Klinikleri" will provide through the "SITE" for a certain price or for free are;

- Providing scientific articles, books and informative publications for health industry.

- Providing structural, statistical and editorial support to article preparation stage for scientific journals.

4. GENERAL PROVISIONS

4.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine which of the services and contents provided in the "SITE" will be charged.

4.2. People benefiting from the services provided by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and using the website can use the "SITE" only according to the law and only for personal reasons. Users have the criminal and civil liability for every process and action they take in the "SITE". Every USER agrees, declares and undertakes that they will not proceed by any function or action infringement of rights of "Turkiye Klinikleri"s and/or other third parties', they are the exclusive right holder on usage, processing, storage, made public and revealing any written, visual or auditory information reported to Turkiye Klinikleri" and/or "SITE" to the third parties. "USER" agrees and undertakes that s/he will not duplicate, copy, distribute, process, the pictures, text, visual and auditory images, video clips, files, databases, catalogs and lists within the "SITE", s/he will not be using these actions or with other ways to compete with "Turkiye Klinikleri", directly or indirectly.

4.3. The services provided and the context published within the "SITE" by third parties is not under the responsibility of "Turkiye Klinikleri", institutions collaborated with "Turkiye Klinikleri", "Turkiye Klinikleri" employee and directors, "Turkiye Klinikleri" authorized salespeople. Commitment to accuracy and legality of the published information, context, visual and auditory images provided by any third party are under the full responsibility of the third party. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not promise and guarantee the safety, accuracy and legality of the services and context provided by a third party.

4.4. "USER"s cannot act against "Turkiye Klinikleri", other "USER"s and third parties by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" has no direct and/or indirect responsibility for any damage a third party suffered or will suffer regarding "USER"s actions on the "SITE" against the rules of the hereby "Terms of Use" and the law.

4.5. "USER"s accept and undertake that the information and context they provided to the "SITE" are accurate and legal. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is not liable and responsible for promising and guaranteeing the verification of the information and context transmitted to "Turkiye Klinikleri" by the "USER"s, or uploaded, changed and provided through the "SITE" by them and whether these information are safe, accurate and legal.

4.6. "USER"s agree and undertake that they will not perform any action leading to unfair competition, weakening the personal and commercial credit of "Turkiye Klinikleri" and a third party,  encroaching and attacking on personal rights within the "SITE" in accordance with the Turkish Commercial Code Law.

4.7. "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the right to change the services and the context within the "SITE"  anytime. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use this right without any notification and timelessly. "USER"s have to make the changes and/or corrections "Turkiye Klinikleri" required immediately. Any changes and/or corrections that are required by "Turkiye Klinikleri", may be made by "Turkiye Klinikleri" when needed. Any harm, criminal and civil liability resulted or will result from changes and/or corrections required by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and were not made on time by the "USER"s belongs completely to the users.

4.8. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may give links through the "SITE" to other websites and/or "CONTEXT"s and/or folders that are outside of their control and owned and run by third parties. These links are provided for ease of reference only and do not hold qualification for support the respective web SITE or the admin or declaration or guarantee for the information inside. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not hold any responsibility over the web-sites connected through the links on the "SITE", folders and context, the services or products on the websites provided through these links or their context.

4.9. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use the information provided to them by the "USERS" through the "SITE" in line with the terms of the "PRIVACY POLICY" and "USER CONTRACT". It may process the information or classify and save them on a database. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may also use the USER's or visitor's identity, address, e-mail address, phone number, IP number, which sections of the "SITE" they visited, domain type, browser type, date and time information to provide statistical evaluation and customized services.

5. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS

5.1. The information accessed through this "SITE" or provided by the users legally and all the elements (including but not limited to design, text, image, html code and other codes) of the "SITE" (all of them will be called as studies tied to "Turkiye Klinikleri"s copyrights) belongs to "Turkiye Klinikleri". Users do not have the right to resell, process, share, distribute, display or give someone permission to access or to use the "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information and the products under copyright protection by "Turkiye Klinikleri". Within hereby "Terms of Use" unless explicitly permitted by "Turkiye Klinikleri" nobody can reproduce, process, distribute or produce or prepare any study from those under "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyright protection.

5.2. Within hereby "Terms of Use", "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the rights for "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information, the products associated with "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyrights, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trademarks, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trade looks or its all rights for other entity and information it has through this website unless it is explicitly authorized by "Turkiye Klinikleri".

6. CHANGES IN THE TERMS OF USE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" in its sole discretion may change the hereby "Terms of Use" anytime announcing within the "SITE". The changed terms of the hereby "Terms of Use" will become valid when they are announced. Hereby "Terms of Use" cannot be changed by unilateral declarations of users.

7. FORCE MAJEURE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" is not responsible for executing late or never of this hereby "Terms of Use", privacy policy and "USER Contract" in any situation legally taken into account as force majeure. Being late or failure of performance or non-defaulting of this and similar cases like this will not be the case from the viewpoint of "Turkiye Klinikleri", and "Turkiye Klinikleri" will not have any damage liability for these situations. "Force majeure" term will be regarded as outside of the concerned party's reasonable control and any situation that "Turkiye Klinikleri" cannot prevent even though it shows due diligence. Also, force majeure situations include but not limited to natural disasters, rebellion, war, strike, communication problems, infrastructure and internet failure, power cut and bad weather conditions.

8. LAW AND AUTHORISATION TO FOLLOW

Turkish Law will be applied in practicing, interpreting the hereby "Terms of Use" and managing the emerging legal relationships within this "Terms of Use" in case of finding element of foreignness, except for the rules of Turkish conflict of laws. Ankara Courts and Enforcement Offices are entitled in any controversy happened or may happen due to hereby contract.

9. CLOSING AND AGREEMENT

Hereby "Terms of Use" come into force when announced in the "SITE" by "Turkiye Klinikleri". The users are regarded to agree to hereby contract terms by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the contract terms and the changes will be come into force by specifying the version number and the date of change on time it is published in the "SITE".

 

30.03.2014

Privacy Policy

We recommend you to read the terms of use below before you visit our website. In case you agree these terms, following our rules will be to your favor. Please read our Terms of Use thoroughly.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com website belongs to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. and is designed in order to inform physicians in the field of health

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot reach to user’s identity, address, service providers or other information. The users may send this information to the website through forms if they would like to. However, www.turkiyeklinikleri.com may collect your hardware and software information. The information consists of your IP address, browser type, operating system, domain name, access time, and related websites. www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot sell the provided user information (your name, e-mail address, home and work address, phone number) to the third parties, publish it publicly, or keep it in the website. Gathered information has a directing feature to be a source for the website’s visitor profile, reporting and promotion of the services.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com uses the taken information:

-To enhance, improve and maintain the quality of the website

-To generate visitor’s profile and statistical data

-To determine the tendency of the visitors on using our website

-To send print publications/correspondences

-To send press releases or notifications through e-mail

-To generate a list for an event or competition

By using www.turkiyeklinikleri.com you are considered to agree that;

-Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. cannot be hold responsible for any user’s illegal and immoral behavior,

-Terms of use may change from time to time,

-It is not responsible for other websites’ contents it cannot control or the harms they may cause although it uses the connection they provided.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. may block the website to users in the following events:

-Information with wrong, incomplete, deceiving or immoral expressions is recorded to the website,

-Proclamation, advertisement, announcement, libelous expressions are used against natural person or legal identity,

-During various attacks to the website,

-Disruption of the website because of a virus.

Written, visual and audible materials of the website, including the code and the software are under protection by legal legislation.

Without the written consent of Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. the information on the website cannot be downloaded, changed, reproduced, copied, republished, posted or distributed.

All rights of the software and the design of the website belong to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. will be pleased to hear your comments about our terms of use. Please share the subjects you think may enrich our website or if there is any problem regarding our website.

info@turkiyeklinikleri.com