Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Ethics-Law and History

.: RESEARCH
The COVID-19 Pandemic Struggle of Older Adults' in Ethical Perspective: A Qualitative Research
Etik Perspektifte Yaşlı Yetişkinlerin COVID-19 Pandemi Mücadelesi: Niteliksel Bir Araştırma
Mehtap PEKESENa, Şengül AKDENİZa
aDepartment of Health Care Services Division, Akdeniz Üniversity Health Services Vocational High School, Antalya, TURKEY
Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Ethics. 2021;29(3):413-20
doi: 10.5336/mdethic.2021-84173
Article Language: EN
ABSTRACT
Social stigmatization and deprivation of human rights on the axis of ageism and social exclusion emerge as a common way of suffering for older adults during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The research aims to define the psychosocial adjustment experiences of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic, the phenomenon of stigmatization within the context of age discrimination and social exclusion. A qualitative study was conducted with 25 elder people in 2020 using the phenomenological design and purposeful sampling method. Data were analyzed using Reflective Lifeworld Research, a phenomenological approach. The research data were analyzed under 5 main themes; anxiety, stigmatization, coping strategy, adaptation to change experience, ıntergenerational solidarity experience and 19 sub-themes under these themes. According to the results of the research, it was determined that older adults were exposed to social stigma as part of ageism and social exclusion during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to these data that make it difficult for older adults to cope with the process and their psychosocial adjustment processes, the strengths of the aging process and examples of intergenerational solidarity are also revealed. In the light of all these data, it is thought that social stigmatization of older adults will adversely affect the health and well-being of society and increase morbidity and mortality during the COVID19 pandemic process. For this reason, it is thought that global authorities should develop new strategies, taking into account the heterogeneity in aging and changing needs in individuality, instead of providing a uniform directive, taking into account the need to improve the public's perception of risk.

Keywords: COVID-19 and stigmatization; COVID-19 and older adults; stigmatization; social exclusion; ageism
ÖZET
Koronavirüs hastalığı-2019 [coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)] pandemi sürecinde, yaş ayrımcılığı ve sosyal dışlanma ekseninde damgalanma ve insan haklarından yoksun bırakılma, yaşlı yetişkinler için ortak bir acı çekme yolu olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Araştırma, yaşlı yetişkinlerin COVID-19 pandemi sürecindeki, psikososyal uyum deneyimlerini, yaş ayrımcılığı ve sosyal dışlanma kapsamında damgalanma fenomenini tanımlamayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu nitel araştırma 2020 yılında, fenomenolojik desende ve amaçlı örneklem yöntemi kullanılarak 25 yaşlı ile yapılmıştır. Veriler, fenomenolojik bir yaklaşım olan 'Yansıtıcı Yaşam Dünyası Araştırması' kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma verileri; anksiyete, damgalanma, başa çıkma stratejisi, değişime uyum deneyimi, kuşaklar arası dayanışma deneyimi şeklindeki 5 ana tema ve bu temaların altında yer alan 19 alt tema altında incelenmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre yaşlıların COVID-19 pandemisinde yaş ayrımcılığı ve sosyal dışlanma kapsamında toplumsal damgalanmaya maruz kaldıkları belirlenmiştir. Yaşlı yetişkinlerin, salgına karşı verdikleri mücadelenin yanı sıra damgalanma ile de mücadele etmek zorunda kaldıkları belirlenmiştir. Bu araştırma, yaşlı yetişkinlerin süreçle baş etmelerini ve psikososyal uyum süreçlerini zorlaştıran bu verilerin yanı sıra yaşlılık sürecinin güçlü yanları ve kuşaklar arası dayanışma örneklerini de ortaya konmaktadır. Tüm bu veriler ışığında, yaşlı yetişkinlerin toplumsal damgalanmaya maruz kalmasının, COVID-19 pandemi sürecinde, toplumun sağlık ve refahını olumsuz etkileyeceği, morbidite ve mortaliteyi artıracağı düşünülmektedir. Bu nedenle küresel otoritelerin, kamunun risk algısını iyileştirme ihtiyacını dikkate alarak tek tip bir direktif sağlamak yerine, yaşlanmadaki heterojenliği ve bireysellikteki değişen ihtiyaçları dikkate alarak yeni stratejiler geliştirmesi gerektiği düşünülmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: COVID-19 ve damgalanma; COVID-19 ve yaşlı yetişkinler; damgalanma; sosyal dışlanma; yaş ayrımcılığı
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