Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Ethics-Law and History

.: RESEARCH
The Fight Against Diseases with Medicine and Wound Care in the Ottoman Army During the Greco-Ottoman War of 1897
1897 Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı Boyunca Osmanlı Ordusunda Yaralı Bakımı ve Hastalıklarla Mücadele
Oya DAĞLAR MACARa
aDepartment of International Relations, İstanbul Commerce University,
İstanbul
Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Ethics. 2010;18(1):1-14
Article Language: EN
ABSTRACT
The Ottoman-Greece War of 1897, is one that the Ottoman State had important improvements in military medicine. During the war, it was apparent that the Ottoman State was inadequate in health care services behind the front-lines. One important acquisition of the war was that it was understood that hygiene and disinfection was crucial for human health. The lack of hygiene caused many soldiers wounds became gangrene in the front, therefore some died, some lost various ribs. Though the operations were considered successful, many soldiers were lost due to infections in their wounds and many soldiers were lost because of contagious diseases right after the start of the war because of the lack of hygiene. Besides of those negative incidences, this war is one that many successful operations were achieved and furthermore it influenced the medical practices in world in general by some practices. As is known, In 1897 information and practise on war surgery were insufficient both in Europe and in the Ottoman Empire. But, in spite of limited medical information and materials and under trying conditions of the fronts, Ottoman surgeons showed the courage to perform some very difficult operations in this war and became successful. Moreover, the Ottoman-Greek War is the first war during which radiographies of systematic military diagnostic cases were taken in both fronts after the discovery of the X rays. Moreover this war had become very important, because it stimulated the historical development of the Ottoman Red Crescent. The solidarity between the Red Crescent and the Red Cross was a memorable one. The Red Crescent, which was founded just before the war, offered its services for the first time in the Greco-Ottoman War. During the same war the International Red Cross Foundation sent health assistance to both the Ottoman Empire and Greece. The solidarity between the Red Crescent and the Red Cross was a memorable one.

Keywords: Red cross; communicable diseases, emerging; adolescent health services; nuclear medicine; health services; radiology
ÖZET
1897 Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı Osmanlı Devleti'nin askeri tıp alanında son derece önemli bir gelişme kaydettiği savaştır. Bu savaşta Osmanlı Devleti cephe gerisindeki sağlık hizmetlerindeki yetersizliği açıkça ortaya çıkmıştır. Savaşın en önemli kazanımlarından biri dezenfeksiyon ve hijyenin insan sağlığı açısından öneminin anlaşılmasıdır. Cephede hijyen yetersizliğinden dolayı askerlerin bir çoğunun yarası kangrene dönüşmüş, bu yüzden bazıları ölmüş, bazıları da uzuvlarını kaybetmek zorunda kalmıştır. Başarılı ameliyatlardan sonra yaranın enfeksiyon kapmasına bağlı olarak çok sayıda asker kaybedilmiştir. Ayrıca hijyen sağlanamadığından savaşın hemen ertesinde başlayan salgın hastalıklar yüzünden pek çok asker yaşamını yitirmiştir. Bu olumsuz tecrübelerin yanı sıra, Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı bilhassa savaş cerrahisi konusunda hem çok başarılı ameliyatların yapıldığı hem de dünya tıbbının gelişmesinde çok önemli uygulamaların başlatıldığı bir savaş olarak tarihe geçmiştir. Bilindiği üzere, 1897'de gerek Avrupa'da gerekse Osmanlı'da savaş cerrahisi konusunda bilgi ve pratikler yetersizdi. Fakat tıp bilgisindeki eksiklikler, kısıtlı malzeme, ve cephedeki güç koşullara rağmen cerrahların bu savaşta en zor ameliyatları yapma cesaretini gösterdikleri ve önemli başarılara imza attıkları bir gerçekti. 1897 Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı X ışınlarının keşfinden sonra, iki cephede de sistemli askeri tanısal radyografilerin çekildiği ilk savaştı. Bu savaş Osmanlı Kızılayı'nın tarihsel gelişimi açısından da büyük önem taşımaktadır. Savaştan kısa bir süre önce yeniden faaliyete geçen Kızılay, ilk kez Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı'nda etkili bir hizmet vermiştir. Ayrıca savaş boyunca Uluslararası Kızılhaç Örgütleri hem Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'na hem de Yunanistan'a sağlık yardımı gönderdiler. Bu savaşta Kızılay ve Kızılhaç örnek bir dayanışma sergilediler.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Kızıl haç; bulaşıcı hastalıklar, acil; ergen sağlık hizmetleri; nükleer tıp; sağlık hizmetleri; radyoloji

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