Journal of Literature Pharmacy Sciences

.: REVIEW
Toksikolojide Toksikogenomikler ve Yeni Gelişmeler
Toxicogenomics and New Advances in Toxicology
Fundanur YAZICIa, Sevtap AYDINa
aFarmasötik Toksikoloji AD, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Ankara, TÜRKİYE
J Lit Pharm Sci. 2019;8(1):29-42
doi: 10.5336/pharmsci.2018-62249
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Genom, bir organizmanın içerdiği genlerin bütünüdür. Bu genlerin birbirleri ve çevre ile etkileşimini inceleyen çalışmalar genomik olarak ifade edilmektedir. Genomikler, bir organizmanın genomunun dizilişini ve analizini ilgilendiren bir genetik alanıdır. Omik teknolojileri altında genomik, proteomik ve metabolomik teknolojilerinden söz edilmektedir. Bu tüm yeni yaklaşımlar toksisitenin öngörülmesinde, toksisite oluşumunun altında yatan moleküler olayların anlaşılmasını sağlamaktadır. Toksikogenomik ise insan sağlığı ve çevre üzerine zararlı etmenlere karşı organizmadaki gen ve protein aktivitelerinin incelendiği ve toksikoloji ve genomiğin bir arada yer aldığı toksikolojinin bir alt dalıdır. Gen ekspresyon mikroarray teknolojinin gelişmesiyle binlerce genin transkripsiyon seviyesi aynı anda değerlendirilebilir. DNA mikroarray analizi ve protein chipleri gibi yeni moleküler teknolojiler, binlerce gen ve proteinin aynı anda ekspresyonuna olanak sağlayarak toksisite yolaklarının, spesifik kimyasal ve ilaç hedeflerinin keşfini hızlandırmaktadır. Bu yeni toksikogenomik yöntemler toksikoloji alanının gelişimine de olanak sağlamıştır. Omik teknolojileri tüm transkriptom, proteom ve metabonomun incelenmesine izin vermektedir. Bu nedenle omik çalışmalarda büyük miktarda veri üretilmektedir. Bu durum, veri işleme ve veri analizi için yeni kavramları gerektirmiştir. Biyoinformatik çalışmaları bu alanda önem kazanmıştır. Bu çalışmalar ile büyük veri kümeleri içindeki ve arasındaki ilişkiler çeşitli algoritmalar ve biyoistatistiksel yöntemler ile ortaya çıkarılmaktadır. Sonuç olarak, toksikogenomiğin toksikolojide çok önemli bir yeri bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, toksikolojide yeni toksikogenomik gelişmelerin kapsamlı olarak tartışılması amaçlanmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Toksikoloji; toksikogenetik; genomlar; proteomlar; omik teknolojileri
ABSTRACT
A genome is the whole of an organism's genes. Studies that examine the interaction of these genes with each other and with the environment are expressed as "genomics". Genomics is an area within genetics that concerns the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome. Genomics, proteomics and metabolomics technologies are mentioned under omics technology. All these new approaches provide an understanding of the molecular events that underlie toxicity formation for the prediction of toxicity. Toxicogenomics is a subdisiplin of toxicology, where toxicology and genomics coexist, and gene and protein activities in the organism are examined against harmful agents on human health and the environment. By the development of gene expression microarray technology, thousands of genetic transcription levels can be evaluated at the same time. New molecular technologies, such as DNA microarray analysis and protein chips, accelerates the discoveries of toxic pathways, specific chemical and drug targets by enabling the simultaneous expression of thousands of genes and proteins. These new toxicogenomic methods also enable the development of the field of toxicology. Omics technology allows the investigation of all transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics. For this reason, large amounts of data are generated in omics studies. This requires new concepts for data processing and data analysis. Bioinformatics studies have gained importance in this area. The relations between these studies and large data sets are revealed by various algorithms and biostatistical methods. In conclusion, toxicogenomics has a very important place in toxicology. Within this rewiev, the new toxicogenomic developments in toxicology were discussed.

Keywords: Toxicology; toxicogenetics; genomics; proteomics; omic technologies
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