Journal of Literature Pharmacy Sciences

Biyopolimerler ve Akıllı Polimerlere Genel Bakış, Akıllı Polimerlerin Biyomedikal Alandaki Uygulamaları: Geleneksel Derleme
Overview of Biopolymers and Smart Polymers, Applications of Smart Polymers in Biomedical Field: Traditional Review
Meryem KAPLANa,b, Sema ÇALIŞa
aHacettepe Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji ABD, Ankara, TÜRKİYE
bSüleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji ABD, Isparta, TÜRKİYE
J Lit Pharm Sci. 2021;10(3):358-71
doi: 10.5336/pharmsci.2021-83355
Article Language: TR
ÖZET
Polimerler, çok sayıda monomerin bir araya gelmesi sonucu oluşan makromoleküllerdir. Zaman içerisinde, biyomalzeme olarak kullanılan polimerlerin insan vücudu ile olan etkileşimleri göz önüne alınarak yeni polimerler sentezlenmiş ve bu sayede polimerlere ilişkin uygulama alanları oldukça genişlemiştir. Sağlık alanında kullanılan polimerik sistemlerin çoğunluğu için biyouyumluluk ve biyoparçalanma, öncelikli 2 özellik olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Uzun yıllar boyunca araştırılan, Amerikan Gıda ve İlaç Dairesi tarafından onaylanan polimerlerin, biyomedikal uygulamalarda kullanımı oldukça yaygınlaşmaktadır. Polimerlerin alt grubu olan 'uyarana duyarlı polimerler' ise günümüz polimer uygulama ve araştırmalarının en popüler konularından birini oluşturmaktadır. Bu polimer grubunu diğer polimerlerden ayıran en önemli özelliği, uyaranlara duyarlı polimerlerin elektrik ve manyetik alan, sıcaklık, pH ve ışık gibi çevresel uyaranlara cevap verebilmesidir. Bu kapsamda, 'akıllı' olarak da adlandırılan polimerlerin, insan vücuduna, çeşitli yollardan uygulanması sonucu fizyolojik koşullar ya da dışarıdan uygulanan ek bir uyaran sebebiyle fizikokimyasal özelliklerinde değişimler meydana getirdiği gözlenmektedir. Bu derlemede, başta eczacılık olmak üzere, sağlık alanında farklı uygulamalar için kullanılan polimerler hakkında bilgiler verilmektedir. Ayrıca, ilaç taşıma, gen taşıma, doku mühendisliği, yara iyileşmesi de dâhil olmak üzere çeşitli biyomedikal uygulamalarda akıllı polimerlerin kullanımı ayrıntılı bir biçimde incelenmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Polimerler; biyopolimerler; uyarana duyarlı polimerler; biyomedikal araştırma; ilaç dağıtım sistemleri
ABSTRACT
Polymers are macromolecules formed by the combination of a large number of monomers. In the course of time, new polymers have been synthesized considering the interactions of polymers used as biomaterials with the human body, and thus their area of application is quite enlarged. Biocompatibility and biodegradation for the majority of polymeric systems used in the field of health are the two most sought-after features. Polymers, which have been researched for many years and approved by the American Food and Drug Administration, are widely used in biomedical applications. 'Stimuli-responsive polymers', a sub group of polymers, are one of the most popular topics of today's polymer applications. The most important feature that distinguishes this group of polymers from other polymers is that polymers sensitive to stimuli can respond to environmental stimuli such as electric and magnetic fields, temperature, pH, and light. In this context, polymers that also called 'smart' are applied to the human body in various ways, and changes in their physicochemical properties occur due to physiological conditions or an additional external stimulus. This review provides information on polymers used in many biomedical fields, especially in the field of pharmacy. In addition, the use of smart polymers in various biomedical applications such as drug transport, gene transport, tissue engineering, wound healing has been thoroughly studied.

Keywords: Polymers; biopolymers; stimuli responsive polymers; biomedical research; drug delivery systems
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4.8. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may give links through the "SITE" to other websites and/or "CONTEXT"s and/or folders that are outside of their control and owned and run by third parties. These links are provided for ease of reference only and do not hold qualification for support the respective web SITE or the admin or declaration or guarantee for the information inside. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not hold any responsibility over the web-sites connected through the links on the "SITE", folders and context, the services or products on the websites provided through these links or their context.

4.9. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use the information provided to them by the "USERS" through the "SITE" in line with the terms of the "PRIVACY POLICY" and "USER CONTRACT". It may process the information or classify and save them on a database. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may also use the USER's or visitor's identity, address, e-mail address, phone number, IP number, which sections of the "SITE" they visited, domain type, browser type, date and time information to provide statistical evaluation and customized services.

5. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS

5.1. The information accessed through this "SITE" or provided by the users legally and all the elements (including but not limited to design, text, image, html code and other codes) of the "SITE" (all of them will be called as studies tied to "Turkiye Klinikleri"s copyrights) belongs to "Turkiye Klinikleri". Users do not have the right to resell, process, share, distribute, display or give someone permission to access or to use the "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information and the products under copyright protection by "Turkiye Klinikleri". Within hereby "Terms of Use" unless explicitly permitted by "Turkiye Klinikleri" nobody can reproduce, process, distribute or produce or prepare any study from those under "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyright protection.

5.2. Within hereby "Terms of Use", "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the rights for "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information, the products associated with "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyrights, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trademarks, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trade looks or its all rights for other entity and information it has through this website unless it is explicitly authorized by "Turkiye Klinikleri".

6. CHANGES IN THE TERMS OF USE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" in its sole discretion may change the hereby "Terms of Use" anytime announcing within the "SITE". The changed terms of the hereby "Terms of Use" will become valid when they are announced. Hereby "Terms of Use" cannot be changed by unilateral declarations of users.

7. FORCE MAJEURE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" is not responsible for executing late or never of this hereby "Terms of Use", privacy policy and "USER Contract" in any situation legally taken into account as force majeure. Being late or failure of performance or non-defaulting of this and similar cases like this will not be the case from the viewpoint of "Turkiye Klinikleri", and "Turkiye Klinikleri" will not have any damage liability for these situations. "Force majeure" term will be regarded as outside of the concerned party's reasonable control and any situation that "Turkiye Klinikleri" cannot prevent even though it shows due diligence. Also, force majeure situations include but not limited to natural disasters, rebellion, war, strike, communication problems, infrastructure and internet failure, power cut and bad weather conditions.

8. LAW AND AUTHORISATION TO FOLLOW

Turkish Law will be applied in practicing, interpreting the hereby "Terms of Use" and managing the emerging legal relationships within this "Terms of Use" in case of finding element of foreignness, except for the rules of Turkish conflict of laws. Ankara Courts and Enforcement Offices are entitled in any controversy happened or may happen due to hereby contract.

9. CLOSING AND AGREEMENT

Hereby "Terms of Use" come into force when announced in the "SITE" by "Turkiye Klinikleri". The users are regarded to agree to hereby contract terms by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the contract terms and the changes will be come into force by specifying the version number and the date of change on time it is published in the "SITE".

 

30.03.2014

Privacy Policy

We recommend you to read the terms of use below before you visit our website. In case you agree these terms, following our rules will be to your favor. Please read our Terms of Use thoroughly.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com website belongs to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. and is designed in order to inform physicians in the field of health

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot reach to user’s identity, address, service providers or other information. The users may send this information to the website through forms if they would like to. However, www.turkiyeklinikleri.com may collect your hardware and software information. The information consists of your IP address, browser type, operating system, domain name, access time, and related websites. www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot sell the provided user information (your name, e-mail address, home and work address, phone number) to the third parties, publish it publicly, or keep it in the website. Gathered information has a directing feature to be a source for the website’s visitor profile, reporting and promotion of the services.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com uses the taken information:

-To enhance, improve and maintain the quality of the website

-To generate visitor’s profile and statistical data

-To determine the tendency of the visitors on using our website

-To send print publications/correspondences

-To send press releases or notifications through e-mail

-To generate a list for an event or competition

By using www.turkiyeklinikleri.com you are considered to agree that;

-Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. cannot be hold responsible for any user’s illegal and immoral behavior,

-Terms of use may change from time to time,

-It is not responsible for other websites’ contents it cannot control or the harms they may cause although it uses the connection they provided.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. may block the website to users in the following events:

-Information with wrong, incomplete, deceiving or immoral expressions is recorded to the website,

-Proclamation, advertisement, announcement, libelous expressions are used against natural person or legal identity,

-During various attacks to the website,

-Disruption of the website because of a virus.

Written, visual and audible materials of the website, including the code and the software are under protection by legal legislation.

Without the written consent of Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. the information on the website cannot be downloaded, changed, reproduced, copied, republished, posted or distributed.

All rights of the software and the design of the website belong to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. will be pleased to hear your comments about our terms of use. Please share the subjects you think may enrich our website or if there is any problem regarding our website.

info@turkiyeklinikleri.com