Journal of Traditional Medical Complementary Therapies

.: ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Erişkin Bireylerin Hedonik Açlık Durumları ile Aşırı Besin İsteği, Dürtüsellik ve Benlik Saygısı Durumları Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi
Investigation of the Relationship Between Hedonic Status of Adult Individuals and Food Craving, Impulsivity and Self-Esteem Status
Ceren ŞARAHMANa, Mehtap AKÇİL OKb
aSerbest Diyetisyen, Balıkesir, TÜRKİYE
bBeslenme ve Diyetetik Bölümü, Başkent Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Ankara, TÜRKİYE
J Tradit Complem Med. 2019;2(2):71-82
doi: 10.5336/jtracom.2019-66520
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Amaç: Hedonik açlık, metabolik ihtiyaç yokluğunda, mevcut olmayan besinlere karşı yeme isteği duyulması sonucunda, besinden zevk alma beklentisi ile ilişkili olarak iştahın açılmasını ifade etmektedir. Çalışma, erişkin bireylerin hedonik açlık durumları ile aşırı besin isteği, dürtüsellik ve benlik saygısı durumları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amacıyla planlanmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmaya, Kasım 2018-Ocak 2019 tarihleri arasında Bandırma ilçesinde yaşayan 18-65 yaş arası gönüllü 158 (%50,2) kadın, 157 (%49,8) erkek birey dahil edilmiştir. Bireylerin kişisel özelliklerini saptamak için 35 sorudan oluşan bir anket formu ile Görsel Analog Skalası, Besin Gücü Ölçeği, Aşırı Besin İsteği Ölçeği, Barratt Dürtüsellik Ölçeği ve Coopersmith Benlik Saygısı Envanteri uygulanarak veriler toplanmıştır. Verilerin istatistiksel analizleri SPSS 22,0 paket programı ile yapılmıştır. Bulgular: Besin Gücü Ölçeği ölçek puanı ve tüm alt faktör puanları kadınlarda erkeklerden daha yüksektir ve aralarındaki fark istatistiksel olarak önemli bulunmuştur. Çalışmaya katılan bireylerin yaş ortalaması 37,95±12,30 yıldır ve 18-27, 28-38, 39-48 ve ≥49 yaş gruplarındaki bireylerin hedonik açlık durumları incelendiğinde; Besin Gücü Ölçeği ölçeği toplam puanı giderek azalmaktadır. Çikolata ve çikolatalı ürünler, kremalı pasta ve pastane ürünleri, cips, fast-food yiyecekler, patates kızartması, ekmek çeşitleri, makarna, hamur işleri ve dondurma tüketme isteği ile Besin Gücü Ölçeği puanı arasındaki pozitif ilişki istatistiksel açıdan önemli bulunmuştur. Bireylerin Aşırı Besin İsteği Ölçeği toplam ve alt faktör puanları arttıkça hedonik açlığın da pozitif yönde arttığı görülmektedir ve bu ilişkilerin hepsi istatistiksel olarak önemli bulunmuştur. Barratt dürtüsellik toplam ve alt faktör puanları arttıkça hedonik açlığın da pozitif yönde arttığı görülmektedir ve istatistiksel olarak önemlidir. Coopersmith benlik saygısı toplam puanı arttıkça hedonik açlığın pozitif yönde arttığı görülmektedir ancak aralarındaki bu ilişki istatistiksel olarak anlamlı değildir. Sonuç: Cinsiyet, yaş gibi bireysel farklılıklar ile aşırı besin isteği duyulan besin çeşitleri, aşırı besin isteğinin varlığı, dürtüsellik, benlik saygısı gibi faktörler bireylerin hedonik açlık durumlarını etkilemektedir. Hedonik açlığa yol açan faktörlerin belirlenmesi bireylere özgü planlanacak beslenme programlarında daha doğru yönlendirmeler yapılmasına, bireylerin beslenme alışkanlıklarının iyileştirilmesine, fazla kiloluluk ve obezitenin tedavisi ve önlenmesine yönelik başarının artırılmasına katkı sağlayacaktır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Açlık; iştah düzenleme; benlik kavramı; dürtücü davranış
ABSTRACT
Objective: In the absence of metabolic need, hedonic hunger implies the opening up of appetite in relation to the expectation of pleasure from food as a result of the desire to eat against non-available foods. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between hedonic hunger status of adult individuals and food craving, impulsivity and self-esteem. Material and Methods: The study was conducted between November 2018 and January 2019 in Bandırma district where there were 158 women (50.2%) and 157 men (49.8%) living in Bandırma. In order to determine the personal characteristics of the individuals, data were collected by using a 35-item questionnaire, visual analog scale, the Power of Food Scale, the Food Craving Questionnaire, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Statistical analysis of the data was done by using SPSS 22.0 package program. Results: The Power Foof Scale scale score and all sub-factor scores were higher in females than males and this difference was statistically significant. The mean age of the participants was 37.95±12.30 years and when the hedonic hunger status of the individuals in the age group of 18-27, 28-38, 39-48 and ≥49 years was examined; the total score of the Power Foof Scale scale is gradually decreasing. Chocolate and chocolate products, cream cake and pastry products, chips, fast-food, fried potatoes, bread types, macaroni, pastries and ice cream consumption and the positive correlation between the Power Foof Scale score was found statistically significant. It was observed that hedonic hunger increased positively as the Food Cravings Questionnaire total and sub-factor scores increased and all of these relationships were statistically significant. It is observed that hedonic hunger increases positively as Barratt impulsivity total and sub-factor scores increased and statistically significant. As the total score of Coopersmith self-esteem increased, hedonic hunger increased positively but this relationship was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Individual differences such as gender, age with factors such as food craving demand and the presence of food craving, impulsivity, and self-esteem affect the hedonic status of individuals. Determining these factors that lead to hedonic hunger will contribute to more accurate guidance in the individual nutrition programs, improvement of nutritional habits of individuals, and increase of success in treatment and prevention of overweight and obesity.

Keywords: Hunger; appetite regulation; self concept; impulsive behavior
REFERENCES:
  1. Lowe MR, Butryn ML. Hedonic hunger: a new dimension of appetite? Physiol Behav. 2007;91(4):432-9. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  2. Cappelleri JC, Bushmakin A, Gerber RA, Leidy NK, Sexton CC, Karlsson J, et al. Evaluating the Power of Food Scale in obese subjects and a general sample of individuals: development and measurement properties. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(8):913-22. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  3. Yang D, Liu T, Williams KW. Motivation to Eat-AgRP neurons and homeostatic need. Cell Metab. 2015;22(1):62-3. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  4. Aliasghari F, Yahgin NL, Mahdavi R. Relationship between hedonic hunger and serum levels of insulin, leptin and BDNF in the Iranian population. Physiol Behav. 2019;199:84-7. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  5. Hayzaran M, Determination of the university student's hedonic hunger status with different scales. Baskent University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Nutrition and Dietetics Post Graduate Thesis Ankara, 2018. http://dspace.baskent.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/handle/11727/2820
  6. Monteleone P, Piscitelli F, Scognamiglio P, Monteleone AM, Canestrelli B, Di Marzo V, et al. Hedonic eating is associated with increased peripheral levels of ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol in healthy humans: a pilot study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(6):E917-24. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  7. Mela DJ. Eating for pleasure or just wanting to eat? Reconsidering sensory hedonic responses as a driver of obesity. Appetite. 2006;47(1):10-7. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  8. Köse S, Şanlıer N. [Hedonic hunger and obesity: review ].Turkiye Klinikleri J Endocrin. 2015;10(1):16-23. [Crossref] 
  9. Lee PC, Dixon JB. Food for thought: reward mechanisms and hedonic overeating on obesity. Curr Obes Rep. 2017;6:353-61. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  10. Lowe MR, Butryn ML, Didie ER, Annunziato RA, Thomas JG, Crerand CE, et al. The power of food scale. A new measure of the psychological influence of the food environment. Appetite. 2009;53(1):114-8. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  11. Cepeda-Benito A, Gleaves DH, Williams TL. The development and validation of state and trait food-cravings questionnaires. Behav Ther. 2000;31(1):151-73. [Crossref] 
  12. Müftüoğlu S, Kızıltan G, Akçil Ok M. [Adaptation of "food craving questionnaire" for major depression patients into turkish culture: a validity and reliability study]. Turkiye Klinikleri J Health Sci. 2017;2(1):13-22. [Crossref] 
  13. Stanford MS, Mathias CW, Dougherty DM, Lake SL, Anderson NE, Patton JH. Fifty years of the Barratt impulsiveness scale: an update and review. Personality and Individual Differences. 2009;47(5):385-95. [Crossref] 
  14. Sarisoy G, Atmaca A, Ecemiş G, Gümüş K, Pazvantoğlu O. [Impulsivity in patients with obesity and correlations with body perception and self-esteem]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatr. 2013;14(1):53-61. [Crossref] 
  15. Annagür BB, Orhan FÖ, Özer A, Tamam L, Erhan Ç. [Impulsivity and emotional factors in obesity: a preliminary study. Archives of Neuropsychiatry. 2012;49(1):14-9.
  16. Güleç H, Tamam L, Yazıcı Güleç M, Turhan M, Karakuş G, Zengin M, et al. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Barratt impulsiveness scale-11. Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacolgy. 2008;18(4):251-8.
  17. Ulaş B, Uncu F, Üner S. [Prevalence and affecting factors of potential eating disorders among students of health higher education]. Journal of İnönü University Health Sciences. 2013;2(2):15-22.
  18. Değirmenci T. [Self-esteem, quality of life, eating attribution, depression and anxiety in obese adults]. Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine Department of Psychiatry Denizli. 2006. Tez çalışması, kabul edilme ihtimalinden dolayı linkini ekledim. http://acikerisim.pau.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11499/2671/Taner%20De%C4%9Firmenci.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  19. Feig EH, Piers AM, Kral TVE, Lowe MR. Eating in the absence of hunger is related to loss-of-control eating, hedonic hunger, and short-term weight gain in normal-weight women. Appetite. 2018;123:317-24. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  20. Holmberg E, Sjöstedt J, Malinina E, Johansson M, Turkmen S, Ragagnin G, et al. Allopregnanolone involvement in feeding regulation, overeating and obesity. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2018;48:70-7. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  21. Ely AV, Howard J, Lowe MR. Delayed discounting and hedonic hunger in the prediction of lab-based eating behavior. Eat Behav. 2015;19:72-5. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  22. Berthoud HR, Münzberg H, Morrison CD. Blaming the brain for obesity: integration of hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms. Gastroenterology. 2017;152(7):1728-38. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  23. Schüz B, Schüz N, Ferguson SG. It's the power of food: individual differences in food cue responsiveness and snacking in everyday life. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:149. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  24. Yoshikawa T, Orita K, Watanabe Y, Tanaka M. Validation of the Japanese version of the power of food scale in a young adult population. Psychol Rep.2012;111(1):253-65. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  25. Tapia MA, Lee JR, Weise VN, Tamasi AM, Will MJ. Sex differences in hedonic and homeostatic aspects of palatable food motivation. Behav Brain Res. 2019;359:396-400. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  26. Chao A, Grilo CM, White MA, Sinha R. Food cravings, food intake, and weight status in a community-based sample. Eat Behav. 2014;15(3):478-82. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  27. Franken IH, Muris P. Individual differences in reward sensitivity are related to food craving and relative body weight in healthy women. Appetite. 2005;45(2):198-201. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  28. Johnson SL, Boles RE, Burger KS. Using participant hedonic ratings of food images to construct data driven food groupings. Appetite. 2014;79:189-96. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  29. Hallam J, Boswell RG, DeVito EE, Kober H. Gender-related differences in food craving and obesity. Yale J Biol Med. 2016;89(2):161-73.
  30. Yazıcı K, Yazıcı AE. [Neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of impulsivity]. Current Approaches in Psychiatry. 2010;2(2):254-80.
  31. Tunay M. [Evaluation of the relationship between obesity and impulsivity in women]. Turk J Diab Obes. 2018;2:59-64. https://dergipark.org.tr/download/article-file/529264. [Crossref] 
  32. Leitch MA, Morgan MJ, Yeomans MR. Different subtypes of impulsivity differentiate uncontrolled eating and dietary restraint. Appetite. 2013;69:54-63. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  33. Özkan İ. [Factors affecting self-esteem]. Düşünen Adam. 1994;7(3):4-9.
  34. Kahriman İ. [Examination of self esteem and assertiveness levels of Trabzon Health College students in terms of some variables]. CÜ Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Dergisi. 2005;9(1):24-32.
  35. Hamurcu P, Öner C, Telatar B, Yeşildağ S. The impact of obesity on self-esteem and body image. Türk Aile Hek Derg. 2015;19(3):122-8. [Crossref] 

.: Up To Date



Login



Contact


Ortadoğu Reklam Tanıtım Yayıncılık Turizm Eğitim İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş.

.: Address

Turkocagi Caddesi No:30 06520 Balgat / ANKARA
Phone: +90 312 286 56 56
Fax: +90 312 220 04 70
E-mail: info@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Manuscript Editing Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 2
E-mail: yaziisleri@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: English Language Redaction

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 145
E-mail: tkyayindestek@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Marketing Sales-Project Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 142
E-mail: reklam@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Subscription and Public Relations Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 118
E-mail: abone@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Customer Services

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 118
E-mail: satisdestek@turkiyeklinikleri.com

1. TERMS OF USE

1.1. To use the web pages with http://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com domain name or the websites reached through the sub domain names attached to the domain name (They will be collectively referred as "SITE"), please read the conditions below. If you do not accept these terms, please cease to use the "SITE." "SITE" owner reserves the right to change the information on the website, forms, contents, the "SITE," "SITE" terms of use anytime they want.

1.2. The owner of the "SITE" is Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. (From now on it is going to be referred as "Turkiye Klinikleri", shortly) and it resides at Turkocagi cad. No:30, 06520 Balgat Ankara. The services in the "SITE" are provided by "Turkiye Klinikleri."

1.3. Anyone accessing the "SITE" with or without a fee whether they are a natural person or a legal identity is considered to agree these terms of use. In this contract hereby, "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the stated terms anytime. These changes will be published in the "SITE" periodically and they will be valid when they are published. Any natural person or legal identity benefiting from and reaching to the "SITE" are considered to be agreed to any change on hereby contract terms done by "Turkiye Klinikleri."

1.4. The "Terms of Use" hereby is published in the website with the last change on March 30th 2014 and the "SITE" is activated by enabling the access to everyone. The "Terms of Use" hereby is also a part of the any "USER Contract" was and/or will be done with the users using "Turkiye Klinikleri" services with or without a fee an inseparable.

2. DEFINITIONS

2.1. "SITE": A website offering different kind of services and context with a certain frame determined by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and it is accessible on-line on http://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com domain name and/or subdomains connected to the domain name.

2.2. USER: A natural person or a legal identity accessing to the "SITE" through online settings.

2.3. LINK: A link enabling to access to another website through the "SITE", the files, the context or through another website to the "SITE", the files and the context.

2.4. CONTEXT: Any visual, literary and auditory images published in the "Turkiye Klinikleri", "SITE" and/or any website or any accessible information, file, picture, number/figures, price, etc.

2.5. "USER CONTRACT": An electronically signed contract between a natural or a legal identity benefiting from special services "Turkiye Klinikleri" will provide and "Turkiye Klinikleri".

3. SCOPE OF THE SERVICES

3.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine the scope and quality of the services via the "SITE".

3.2. To benefit the services of "Turkiye Klinikleri" "SITE", the "USER" must deliver the features that will be specified by "Turkiye Klinikleri". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change this necessity any time single-sided.

3.3. Not for a limited number, the services "Turkiye Klinikleri" will provide through the "SITE" for a certain price or for free are;

- Providing scientific articles, books and informative publications for health industry.

- Providing structural, statistical and editorial support to article preparation stage for scientific journals.

4. GENERAL PROVISIONS

4.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine which of the services and contents provided in the "SITE" will be charged.

4.2. People benefiting from the services provided by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and using the website can use the "SITE" only according to the law and only for personal reasons. Users have the criminal and civil liability for every process and action they take in the "SITE". Every USER agrees, declares and undertakes that they will not proceed by any function or action infringement of rights of "Turkiye Klinikleri"s and/or other third parties', they are the exclusive right holder on usage, processing, storage, made public and revealing any written, visual or auditory information reported to Turkiye Klinikleri" and/or "SITE" to the third parties. "USER" agrees and undertakes that s/he will not duplicate, copy, distribute, process, the pictures, text, visual and auditory images, video clips, files, databases, catalogs and lists within the "SITE", s/he will not be using these actions or with other ways to compete with "Turkiye Klinikleri", directly or indirectly.

4.3. The services provided and the context published within the "SITE" by third parties is not under the responsibility of "Turkiye Klinikleri", institutions collaborated with "Turkiye Klinikleri", "Turkiye Klinikleri" employee and directors, "Turkiye Klinikleri" authorized salespeople. Commitment to accuracy and legality of the published information, context, visual and auditory images provided by any third party are under the full responsibility of the third party. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not promise and guarantee the safety, accuracy and legality of the services and context provided by a third party.

4.4. "USER"s cannot act against "Turkiye Klinikleri", other "USER"s and third parties by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" has no direct and/or indirect responsibility for any damage a third party suffered or will suffer regarding "USER"s actions on the "SITE" against the rules of the hereby "Terms of Use" and the law.

4.5. "USER"s accept and undertake that the information and context they provided to the "SITE" are accurate and legal. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is not liable and responsible for promising and guaranteeing the verification of the information and context transmitted to "Turkiye Klinikleri" by the "USER"s, or uploaded, changed and provided through the "SITE" by them and whether these information are safe, accurate and legal.

4.6. "USER"s agree and undertake that they will not perform any action leading to unfair competition, weakening the personal and commercial credit of "Turkiye Klinikleri" and a third party,  encroaching and attacking on personal rights within the "SITE" in accordance with the Turkish Commercial Code Law.

4.7. "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the right to change the services and the context within the "SITE"  anytime. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use this right without any notification and timelessly. "USER"s have to make the changes and/or corrections "Turkiye Klinikleri" required immediately. Any changes and/or corrections that are required by "Turkiye Klinikleri", may be made by "Turkiye Klinikleri" when needed. Any harm, criminal and civil liability resulted or will result from changes and/or corrections required by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and were not made on time by the "USER"s belongs completely to the users.

4.8. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may give links through the "SITE" to other websites and/or "CONTEXT"s and/or folders that are outside of their control and owned and run by third parties. These links are provided for ease of reference only and do not hold qualification for support the respective web SITE or the admin or declaration or guarantee for the information inside. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not hold any responsibility over the web-sites connected through the links on the "SITE", folders and context, the services or products on the websites provided through these links or their context.

4.9. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use the information provided to them by the "USERS" through the "SITE" in line with the terms of the "PRIVACY POLICY" and "USER CONTRACT". It may process the information or classify and save them on a database. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may also use the USER's or visitor's identity, address, e-mail address, phone number, IP number, which sections of the "SITE" they visited, domain type, browser type, date and time information to provide statistical evaluation and customized services.

5. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS

5.1. The information accessed through this "SITE" or provided by the users legally and all the elements (including but not limited to design, text, image, html code and other codes) of the "SITE" (all of them will be called as studies tied to "Turkiye Klinikleri"s copyrights) belongs to "Turkiye Klinikleri". Users do not have the right to resell, process, share, distribute, display or give someone permission to access or to use the "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information and the products under copyright protection by "Turkiye Klinikleri". Within hereby "Terms of Use" unless explicitly permitted by "Turkiye Klinikleri" nobody can reproduce, process, distribute or produce or prepare any study from those under "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyright protection.

5.2. Within hereby "Terms of Use", "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the rights for "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information, the products associated with "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyrights, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trademarks, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trade looks or its all rights for other entity and information it has through this website unless it is explicitly authorized by "Turkiye Klinikleri".

6. CHANGES IN THE TERMS OF USE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" in its sole discretion may change the hereby "Terms of Use" anytime announcing within the "SITE". The changed terms of the hereby "Terms of Use" will become valid when they are announced. Hereby "Terms of Use" cannot be changed by unilateral declarations of users.

7. FORCE MAJEURE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" is not responsible for executing late or never of this hereby "Terms of Use", privacy policy and "USER Contract" in any situation legally taken into account as force majeure. Being late or failure of performance or non-defaulting of this and similar cases like this will not be the case from the viewpoint of "Turkiye Klinikleri", and "Turkiye Klinikleri" will not have any damage liability for these situations. "Force majeure" term will be regarded as outside of the concerned party's reasonable control and any situation that "Turkiye Klinikleri" cannot prevent even though it shows due diligence. Also, force majeure situations include but not limited to natural disasters, rebellion, war, strike, communication problems, infrastructure and internet failure, power cut and bad weather conditions.

8. LAW AND AUTHORISATION TO FOLLOW

Turkish Law will be applied in practicing, interpreting the hereby "Terms of Use" and managing the emerging legal relationships within this "Terms of Use" in case of finding element of foreignness, except for the rules of Turkish conflict of laws. Ankara Courts and Enforcement Offices are entitled in any controversy happened or may happen due to hereby contract.

9. CLOSING AND AGREEMENT

Hereby "Terms of Use" come into force when announced in the "SITE" by "Turkiye Klinikleri". The users are regarded to agree to hereby contract terms by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the contract terms and the changes will be come into force by specifying the version number and the date of change on time it is published in the "SITE".

 

30.03.2014

Privacy Policy

We recommend you to read the terms of use below before you visit our website. In case you agree these terms, following our rules will be to your favor. Please read our Terms of Use thoroughly.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com website belongs to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. and is designed in order to inform physicians in the field of health

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot reach to user’s identity, address, service providers or other information. The users may send this information to the website through forms if they would like to. However, www.turkiyeklinikleri.com may collect your hardware and software information. The information consists of your IP address, browser type, operating system, domain name, access time, and related websites. www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot sell the provided user information (your name, e-mail address, home and work address, phone number) to the third parties, publish it publicly, or keep it in the website. Gathered information has a directing feature to be a source for the website’s visitor profile, reporting and promotion of the services.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com uses the taken information:

-To enhance, improve and maintain the quality of the website

-To generate visitor’s profile and statistical data

-To determine the tendency of the visitors on using our website

-To send print publications/correspondences

-To send press releases or notifications through e-mail

-To generate a list for an event or competition

By using www.turkiyeklinikleri.com you are considered to agree that;

-Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. cannot be hold responsible for any user’s illegal and immoral behavior,

-Terms of use may change from time to time,

-It is not responsible for other websites’ contents it cannot control or the harms they may cause although it uses the connection they provided.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. may block the website to users in the following events:

-Information with wrong, incomplete, deceiving or immoral expressions is recorded to the website,

-Proclamation, advertisement, announcement, libelous expressions are used against natural person or legal identity,

-During various attacks to the website,

-Disruption of the website because of a virus.

Written, visual and audible materials of the website, including the code and the software are under protection by legal legislation.

Without the written consent of Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. the information on the website cannot be downloaded, changed, reproduced, copied, republished, posted or distributed.

All rights of the software and the design of the website belong to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. will be pleased to hear your comments about our terms of use. Please share the subjects you think may enrich our website or if there is any problem regarding our website.

info@turkiyeklinikleri.com