Journal of Literature Pharmacy Sciences

Hiperisin: Fotodinamik Terapi, Hiperisizm ve Fototoksisite
Hypericin: Photodynamic Therapy, Hypericism, and Phototoxicity
Ezgi ERSOYa, Esra EROĞLU ÖZKANa, Afife MATa
aİstanbul Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmakognozi ABD, İstanbul, TÜRKİYE
J Lit Pharm Sci. 2021;10(3):296-307
doi: 10.5336/pharmsci.2021-83782
Article Language: TR
ÖZET
Kimyasal bileşimlerinde bulunan naftodiantron türevi bileşikler nedeniyle birçok Hypericum türünün fototoksik aktivite gösterdiği bilinmektedir. Bu türler arasında en yaygın olarak kullanılan ve üzerinde en fazla araştırma yapılmış olan Hypericum perforatum (sarı kantaron) türü de fototoksik bir bitkidir. Bu bitkilerin koyu renkli salgı bezlerinde sentezlenen ve bir naftodiantron türevi olan hiperisin, fototoksisiteden sorumlu majör bileşiktir. Hiperisin içeren bitkilerin fototoksik etkileri ilk kez, Hypericum türlerinden fazlaca tüketen açık renk derili veya postlu, koyun gibi hayvanların güneş altında otlarken derilerinde meydana gelen ve bazen ölümle sonuçlanan ciddi reaksiyonlar oluşmasıyla keşfedilmiştir. Hayvanlarda görülen bu hastalığa 'Hiperisizm' adı verilmiştir. Bu durum, dâhilen antidepresan haricen de yara iyileştirici etkisi nedeniyle tüm dünyada çok yaygın olarak kullanılan H. perforatum bitkisinin insanlardaki fototoksisite potansiyeli hakkında bilgi edinmeyi zorunlu hâle getirmiştir. Diğer yandan güçlü fotodinamik aktivitesi sayesinde farmasötik açıdan oldukça önemli bir molekül olan hiperisin; özellikle kanser ve AIDS hastalıklarının fotodinamik terapiyle tedavisinde umut vaat eden bir bileşik olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Ayrıca fotodinamik terapide, fotosensibilizan ajan olarak hiperisin kullanımının diğer fototoksik maddelere kıyasla ciddi avantajlar sağladığı görülmüştür. Bu derleme, Hypericum türlerinin fototoksisitesi, hiperisinin fotodinamik aktivitesi, fotodinamik terapide kullanılışı ve diğer farmakolojik özellikleriyle ilgili detaylı bilgi vermek üzere hazırlanmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Hypericum; sarı kantaron; hiperisin; fototoksisite; fotodinamik terapi
ABSTRACT
Most of the Hypericum species, including the most wellknown, commonly used, and extensively investigated Hypericum perforatum, (common St. John's Wort) are known to be phototoxic plants, due to the naphthodianthrone derivatives present in their chemical compositions. Hypericin, a naphthodianthrone, that is synthesized and stored in their dark glands, is the major compound responsible for their phototoxicity. The phototoxicity of the hypericin containing plants was first discovered in certain light-skinned animals, such as sheep that would have severe skin reactions, and even die from ingesting large quantities of Hypericum species while grazing, and of exposure to sun after. This disease in animals was named as 'Hypericism'. Being widely used mainly for its antidepressant effect internally and its wound-healing properties externally, it has become crucial to gain more knowledge about the phototoxic potential of H. perforatum in humans. Furthermore, having strong photodynamic activities, hypericin was found to be a molecule of high pharmaceutical importance, and considered as a promising agent for cancer and AIDS therapies. More importantly, in the search for new photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, hypericin was found to have many serious advantages in comparison to other phototoxic agents. This review was designed to give detailed information about the phototoxicity of Hypericum species, the photodynamic activity, and pharmacological properties of hypericin including its use in photodynamic therapy.

Keywords: Hypericum; St. John's Wort; hypericin; phototoxicity; photodynamic therapy
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Turkish Law will be applied in practicing, interpreting the hereby "Terms of Use" and managing the emerging legal relationships within this "Terms of Use" in case of finding element of foreignness, except for the rules of Turkish conflict of laws. Ankara Courts and Enforcement Offices are entitled in any controversy happened or may happen due to hereby contract.

9. CLOSING AND AGREEMENT

Hereby "Terms of Use" come into force when announced in the "SITE" by "Turkiye Klinikleri". The users are regarded to agree to hereby contract terms by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the contract terms and the changes will be come into force by specifying the version number and the date of change on time it is published in the "SITE".

 

30.03.2014

Privacy Policy

We recommend you to read the terms of use below before you visit our website. In case you agree these terms, following our rules will be to your favor. Please read our Terms of Use thoroughly.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com website belongs to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. and is designed in order to inform physicians in the field of health

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot reach to user’s identity, address, service providers or other information. The users may send this information to the website through forms if they would like to. However, www.turkiyeklinikleri.com may collect your hardware and software information. The information consists of your IP address, browser type, operating system, domain name, access time, and related websites. www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot sell the provided user information (your name, e-mail address, home and work address, phone number) to the third parties, publish it publicly, or keep it in the website. Gathered information has a directing feature to be a source for the website’s visitor profile, reporting and promotion of the services.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com uses the taken information:

-To enhance, improve and maintain the quality of the website

-To generate visitor’s profile and statistical data

-To determine the tendency of the visitors on using our website

-To send print publications/correspondences

-To send press releases or notifications through e-mail

-To generate a list for an event or competition

By using www.turkiyeklinikleri.com you are considered to agree that;

-Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. cannot be hold responsible for any user’s illegal and immoral behavior,

-Terms of use may change from time to time,

-It is not responsible for other websites’ contents it cannot control or the harms they may cause although it uses the connection they provided.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. may block the website to users in the following events:

-Information with wrong, incomplete, deceiving or immoral expressions is recorded to the website,

-Proclamation, advertisement, announcement, libelous expressions are used against natural person or legal identity,

-During various attacks to the website,

-Disruption of the website because of a virus.

Written, visual and audible materials of the website, including the code and the software are under protection by legal legislation.

Without the written consent of Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. the information on the website cannot be downloaded, changed, reproduced, copied, republished, posted or distributed.

All rights of the software and the design of the website belong to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. will be pleased to hear your comments about our terms of use. Please share the subjects you think may enrich our website or if there is any problem regarding our website.

info@turkiyeklinikleri.com