Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Sciences

.: REVIEW
Öjenizm Kavramına Adli Bilimler Kapsamında Disiplinlerarası Bakış: Öjenik Hareketin Hukuki Boyutu, Genetik Boyutu ve Psikolojik Boyutu: Geleneksel Derleme
An Interdiciplinary Approach to Eugenism in Forensic Sciences: Legal, Genetic and Psychological Aspects of Eugenism: Traditional Review
Kerem ÇETİNKAYAa, Nazire Ayşenur YILMAZa, Nihan DOĞUSAN GÖKÇEa, Cansu ŞEKERCİa, Şebnem UYGUNa, Emel Hülya YÜKSELOĞLUa
aİstanbul Üniversitesi Cerrahpaşa Adli Tıp ve Adli Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul, TÜRKİYE
Turkiye Klinikleri J Foren Sci Leg Med. 2021;18(2):155-64
doi: 10.5336/forensic.2020-79700
Article Language: TR
ÖZET
Öjenik hareket, uygulamalarını nesli ıslah etmek amacıyla biyolojik ve genetik temellere dayandırarak, iyi ırkın çoğalmasını, kötü ırkın çoğalmasının engellenmesini ve bu şekilde ıslah edilmiş ari bir ırk oluşturulması fikrini savunmaktadır. Nesli ıslah etmek için de engelliler, hastalar, suçlular gibi grupların toplumdan tecrit edilmesi, kısırlaştırılması ve hatta yok edilmesi gerektiği savunulmaktadır. Bu fikir, ulus devletlerinin oluşmasıyla bazı devletler tarafından da desteklenmiştir. Ancak öjenik hareketin, ileri sürdüğü fikirlerin sınırlarının oldukça geniş olması sebebiyle ırkçılıkla bütünleşerek, tehlikeli boyutlara ulaşması kaçınılmaz olmuştur. Bu çalışmada ise bir yandan iyi bir nesil oluşturma gibi pozitif bir fikri öne süren, diğer yandan insanların temel haklarının yok sayılmasına kadar giden uygulamaları savunan öjeni hareketinin hukuki, genetik ve psikolojik açıdan değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Çalışmada, öncelikle öjenik hareketin görünüş biçimlerinin evrensel hukukta nasıl yorumlandığı ve yerel mevzuatta nasıl bir düzenlemeyle karşılaşıldığı incelenmiştir. Bunun yanında, modern hukuk açısından öjenik çalışmalara ilişkin düzenlemelerin ne yönde evirildiğine değinilmiştir. Öjeni hareketinin motivasyon kaynağında, 'patolojik narsizm' ve 'antisosyal yapı'ya işaret eden, 'amaçtaki mükemmele ulaşmak ve bunun için de saldırganlığa başvurmayı hak görme'nin olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın psikolojik boyutunda, öjenizmin motivasyonunu anlamak için antisosyal yapı ve narsistik yapının incelenmesi düşünülmüştür. Öjenik hareketlerin genetik sürecine bakıldığında, nesli ıslah etme ve kusurlu sayılan genlerin taşınmasını önleme amacıyla yapılan müdahaleler görülmüş ve bunlar negatif öjeniye dâhil edilmiştir. Öte yandan, genetik araştırmaların ilerlemesiyle beraber pozitif öjeni kapsamında, genetik bilginin insan üremesi bağlamında nasıl kullanılabileceğine de değinilmiştir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Öjenizm; adli bilimler; adli psikoloji; adli genetik; hukuk
ABSTRACT
The eugenic movement, having laid its practices on biological and genetic foundations to rehabilitate the generation, advocates the idea of promoting the reproduction of the good race and preventing the reproduction of the bad race and thus, the creation of a pure race. It is argued that groups such as the disabled, sick and criminals should be isolated, sterilized and even exterminated to rehabilitate the generation. However, having integrated with racism, the eugenic movement reached dangerous dimensions. This study aims to evaluate the eugenics with both positive and negative aspects from a legal, genetic and psychological perspective. The study tries to assess the interpretation of the examples of eugenics in universal law and its implementations in local legislation. In regard with the psychological aspect of the study, it is thought that the motivation source of the eugenic movement is 'achieving the ultimate perfection and sense of entitlement to resort to violence and the use of force as a means', which indicates 'pathological narcissism' and 'antisocial structure'. Considering the genetic aspect of eugenic movements, interventions to rehabilitate and prevent the transmission of defective genes have been seen and these were classified under negative eugenics. Considering the genetic aspect of eugenic movements in history, interventions to rehabilitate the generation were classified as both negative and positive eugenics. On the other hand, within the scope of positive eugenics, how genetic information can be utilized in the context of human reproduction is also addressed.

Keywords: Eugenics; forensic science; forensic psychology; forensic genetics; jurisprudence
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"Turkiye Klinikleri" is not responsible for executing late or never of this hereby "Terms of Use", privacy policy and "USER Contract" in any situation legally taken into account as force majeure. Being late or failure of performance or non-defaulting of this and similar cases like this will not be the case from the viewpoint of "Turkiye Klinikleri", and "Turkiye Klinikleri" will not have any damage liability for these situations. "Force majeure" term will be regarded as outside of the concerned party's reasonable control and any situation that "Turkiye Klinikleri" cannot prevent even though it shows due diligence. Also, force majeure situations include but not limited to natural disasters, rebellion, war, strike, communication problems, infrastructure and internet failure, power cut and bad weather conditions.

8. LAW AND AUTHORISATION TO FOLLOW

Turkish Law will be applied in practicing, interpreting the hereby "Terms of Use" and managing the emerging legal relationships within this "Terms of Use" in case of finding element of foreignness, except for the rules of Turkish conflict of laws. Ankara Courts and Enforcement Offices are entitled in any controversy happened or may happen due to hereby contract.

9. CLOSING AND AGREEMENT

Hereby "Terms of Use" come into force when announced in the "SITE" by "Turkiye Klinikleri". The users are regarded to agree to hereby contract terms by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the contract terms and the changes will be come into force by specifying the version number and the date of change on time it is published in the "SITE".

 

30.03.2014

Privacy Policy

We recommend you to read the terms of use below before you visit our website. In case you agree these terms, following our rules will be to your favor. Please read our Terms of Use thoroughly.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com website belongs to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. and is designed in order to inform physicians in the field of health

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot reach to user’s identity, address, service providers or other information. The users may send this information to the website through forms if they would like to. However, www.turkiyeklinikleri.com may collect your hardware and software information. The information consists of your IP address, browser type, operating system, domain name, access time, and related websites. www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot sell the provided user information (your name, e-mail address, home and work address, phone number) to the third parties, publish it publicly, or keep it in the website. Gathered information has a directing feature to be a source for the website’s visitor profile, reporting and promotion of the services.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com uses the taken information:

-To enhance, improve and maintain the quality of the website

-To generate visitor’s profile and statistical data

-To determine the tendency of the visitors on using our website

-To send print publications/correspondences

-To send press releases or notifications through e-mail

-To generate a list for an event or competition

By using www.turkiyeklinikleri.com you are considered to agree that;

-Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. cannot be hold responsible for any user’s illegal and immoral behavior,

-Terms of use may change from time to time,

-It is not responsible for other websites’ contents it cannot control or the harms they may cause although it uses the connection they provided.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. may block the website to users in the following events:

-Information with wrong, incomplete, deceiving or immoral expressions is recorded to the website,

-Proclamation, advertisement, announcement, libelous expressions are used against natural person or legal identity,

-During various attacks to the website,

-Disruption of the website because of a virus.

Written, visual and audible materials of the website, including the code and the software are under protection by legal legislation.

Without the written consent of Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. the information on the website cannot be downloaded, changed, reproduced, copied, republished, posted or distributed.

All rights of the software and the design of the website belong to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. will be pleased to hear your comments about our terms of use. Please share the subjects you think may enrich our website or if there is any problem regarding our website.

info@turkiyeklinikleri.com