Journal of Literature Pharmacy Sciences

Oküler İlaç Taşıyıcı Sistemlerde Güncel Yaklaşımlar
Current Approaches in Ocular Drug Delivery Systems
Ayça GÜNGÖRa, Ayşegül KARATAŞb
aFarmasötik Teknoloji AD, Bülent Ecevit Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Zonguldak, TÜRKİYE
bFarmasötik Teknoloji AD, Ankara Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Ankara, TÜRKİYE
J Lit Pharm Sci. 2019;8(2):108-18
doi: 10.5336/pharmsci.2019-65857
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Göz anatomik olarak ön ve arka segmentlere ayrılmıştır. Kendine has anatomik, biyokimyasal, fizyolojik özellikleri nedeni ile yabancı moleküllere ve ilaç uygulamalarına karşı çok korunaklıdır. Göze ilaç taşınması kornea, konjonktiva gibi bariyerlerle sınırlandırılmaktadır. Göze uygulanan moleküllerde temel hedefler, bariyerleri etkin biçimde aşılır iken, ilaçların göz dokularında çözünürlüğünün artırılmasıdır. İlacın gözde kalış süresini uzatmak ve biyoyararlanımını artırmak amacıyla konvansiyonel dozaj formlarından farklı olarak oküler ilaç taşıyıcı sistemler geliştirilmiş; ayrıca punktum tıkacı sistemleri, iyontoforez ve gen terapisi gibi güncel yaklaşımlar üzerinde çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Lipozom, nanopartikül, nanoemülsiyon gibi steril kolloidal sistemler; oküler implant ve oküler insert gibi steril cisimler oküler ilaç taşıyıcı sistemler arasında yer almaktadır. Özellikle diyabetik makuler ödem, glokom, üveit gibi göz rahatsızlıklarının tedavisinde kendilerine özgü avantajları nedeni ile bu ilaç taşıyıcı sistemler ön plana çıkmaktadır. İlaç uygulamalarında başarıyı etkileyen en önemli faktörlerden birkaçı; ilaç yükleme kapasitesi, ilaç salım hızı ve kullanılan polimerin biyouyumluluğudur. Göze ilaç taşınmasında kullanılan sistemlerin başarısında en önemli faktörlerden biri polimer seçimidir. Günümüzde polimetilmetakrilat, polialkilsiyanoakrilat, polikaprolakton, albumin, jelatin, polilaktik asit, kitosan ve Eudgarid gibi pek çok sentetik ve doğal biyouyumlu polimer göze ilaç taşınmasında kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada; özellikle son yıllarda oküler ilaç taşıyıcı sistemlerle ilgili yapılan araştırmalar üzerinde durularak, bu sistemlerin sınıflandırılması ve henüz sınıflandırma dışı olan daha güncel yaklaşımların verilmesi amaçlanmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Oküler ilaç taşıyıcı sistemler; kolloidal oküler sistemler; punktum tıkaçları; gen terapisi; iyontoforez
ABSTRACT
The eye is anatomically divided into the anterior and posterior segments. Due to its unique anatomical, biochemical and physiological properties, it is very protected against foreign molecules and drug applications. Drug transport to the eye is limited to barriers such as cornea, conjunctiva. The main objectives of the molecules applied to the eye are to increase the solubility of the drugs in the eye tissues while both barriers are effectively overcome. Different from conventional dosage forms, ocular drug delivery systems have been developed in order to increase the bioavailability of the drug and extend the time of the drug; in addition, current approaches such as punctal plugs, iontophoresis and gene therapy have been studied. Sterile colloidal systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions; ocular implant and ocular insert are among the ocular drug delivery systems. These drug delivery systems come to the forefront especially in the treatment of eye disorders such as diabetic macular edema, glaucoma and uveitis. Some of the most important factors affecting success in drug applications are; drug loading capacity, drug release rate and biocompatibility of the polymer used. One of the most important factors in the success of the systems used in drug transport to the eye is the choice of polymer. Nowadays, many synthetic and natural biocompatible polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate, polyalkylcyanacrylate, polycaprolactone, albumin, gelatin, polylactic acid, chitosan and Eudgarid have been used for drug delivery to the eye. In this study, it is aimed to classify ocular drug delivery systems by focusing on the research related to these systems especially in recent years and to give more current approaches that are not yet classified.

Keywords: Ocular drug delivery systems; colloidal ocular systems; punctal plugs; gene therapy iontophoresis
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