Psychotraumatology

.: PREFACE
ÖN SÖZ
PREFACE
Prof. Dr. Erdinç ÖZTÜRK
İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa Adli Tıp ve Adli Bilimler Enstitüsü, Sosyal Bilimler ABD, İstanbul, Türkiye
Article Language: TR
Değerli Bilim İnsanları,

'Psikotravmatoloji: travma ve dissosiyasyon' çalışmalarının yükselme ve sönme dönemleri; dünyanın bütün ülkelerinde etik değerleri bulunan veya bulunmayan ruh sağlığı uzmanlarının ve toplumsal kitlelerin birbirine dışsal yönelimde iki farklı kutba bölünmüş olarak temellenir, o esnada baskın konumunda yer alanın desteğini kazanarak bir harekete dönüşür ancak dual eksende fonksiyon görmektedir ki 'profesyonel farkındalık seviyeleri', 'psikotoplumsal merhamet düzeyleri' ve 'optimal bilinç dereceleri' onun 'yükselme dönemleri' ile, 'travma çalışmalarına olan direnç', 'patolojik duyarsızlık' ve 'ana-akım psikiyatrinin ihmali' ise onun 'sönme dönemleri' ile paralellik gösterir. Çok geniş bir operasyonel tanım spektrumu bulunan travmatik yaşantılar; çocukluk çağı travmaları, psikotoplumsal baskılar, kitlesel şiddet döngüleri, terörizm, savaşlar, doğal afetler, iş ya da ulaşım kazaları, gerçekleşmesi engellenmiş pozitif doğalı olaylar, mobbing, akademik istismar, zorunlu göç, çocuk işçiliği, beyin yıkama, eziyet, işkence ve yanlış çocuk yetiştirme stilleri önde gelmek üzere bireylerin ruhsal entegrasyonları üzerinde kesintiler yaratan örseleyici ve dissosiyojen yaşam deneyimlerini içermektedir. Çocukluk çağı travmaları konusunda şiddet odaklı yanlış çocuk yetiştirme stillerinin psikotoplumsal açıdan dissoanalizi gerçekleştirilmeden kısa veya uzun dönemli 'fonksiyonel psikoterapi yaklaşımları', 'etkin krize müdahale programları' ve 'başarılı önleme stratejileri' geliştirilemez. Modern psikotravmatoloji paradigmaları açısından çocukluk çağı travmaları, yanlış çocuk yetiştirme stilleri içerisinde işlev gören hatta bu yanlış çocuk yetiştirme stillerinin içerisinde bir 'cezalandırma aracı' olarak adeta 'hapsolan' ya da 'saklanan' primitif ve kuşaklararası geçiş gösteren dissosiyojenik tutum ve davranışlardır. Yanlış çocuk yetiştirme stilleri, çocukluk çağı travmaları ve dissosiyatif yaşantılar ile en yakın ilişkiyi kendi içerisinde barındıran psikotravmatoloji ve psikotarih hem birbirini destekleyen hem de birbirinden beslenen psikolojinin esas iki alanıdır. Hem psikotarihte hem de psikotravmatolojide kronik travmatik yaşantıların uzun dönemli psikotoplumsal dissosiyatif reaksiyonları analiz edilmektedir.

Bireylerin psikotoplumsal bilinçlerinde ve realite algılarında ne kadar alyans varsa kendileri de o kadar entegrelerdir. Bu doğrultuda hem bireysel hem de toplumsal 'bilinç alyansı' entegrasyonun en temel koşuludur. Ancak bilincin, realitenin hatta kimliğin tekliği hipotezi ise sadece bir yanılsamadır. Geçmişten günümüze farklılaşım gösteren kitlelerin devinimli, değişken ve progresif profilleri, çoklu bilinç sisteminin varlanışını net bir şekilde ortaya koymaktadır. Artık günümüz toplumunda bireyler; hem çoklu bilinçleri, çoklu realiteleri ve çoklu kimlikleri ile kuşatıcı süreğen baskılardan ve travmatik yaşam deneyimlerinden uzaklaştırıcı bir yaşam sürebilmeyi hem de kendi yarattıkları yeni bir 'psikotoplumsal bilinç alyansı' ekseninde hayatın olağan dinamiklerine adapte olabilmeyi başarmak üzerelerdir. Uyumsal dissosiyatif süreçte her bireyde hakim olan unsur, hem optimal düzeyde entegre edilebilen hem de bir 'çoğul tekillik deneyimi' olan mobil ve çoklu bilinç sistemidir.

Bu bağlamda tarafımca geliştirilen 'dissoanaliz kuramı', öz bir tanımla 'psikotoplumsal terapi'nin ta kendisidir! Dissoanalizin ana amacı gelişime açık entegratif bireyler ve toplumlar yaratmaktır. Dissoanaliz, bireysel ve toplumsal travmaların mümkün olan en kısa sürede hem tedavi edilmesi hem de sonlandırılması adına olumsuz yaşam olaylarını önleme stratejileri odaklı psikotoplumsal kuramların geliştirilmesi ve erken yaşta başlayan kronik çocukluk çağı travmalarıyla en yakın ilişkiyi gösteren dissosiyatif bozukluklar konusunda psikotravmatoloji ve psikotarih perspektifli klinik kökenli modern psikoterapi yöntemlerinin yapılandırılması ile bu bireysel ve toplumsal travmaların altında yatan temel dissosiyojenik bileşenlerin holistik bir yönelimle nötralize edilmesidir

Dönüşüm ve gelişim odaklı ruhsal açıdan entegre bireylerin bir psikotoplumsal bilinç alyansı ekseninde ortalamaya oranı arttığında yeni ve orijinal bir insan profilinin varlık göstermesi olanaklı kılınır. Modern psikotravmatolojinin temel hedefi ruhsal açıdan entegre bireylerden oluşan bir toplumun kuşaklararası süreçte hüküm sürmesini imkanlı kılmaktır. Ancak insanlığın hüzünlü anamnezindeki kronik çocukluk çağı travmaları ve ardışık savaşlar, dissosiyatif bozuklukları her zaman esas psikiyatrik tanı grubu olarak ön plana çıkarmaktadır. Modern psikotravmatolojinin tarihi, değişken zaman aşımlarında travma ve dissosiyatif bozukluklara yönelik amnezik dönemlerle yüklü olsa da son yıllarda travmatik yaşantılar ile ilişkili psikiyatrik hastalıklara verilen bilimsel önemin ve hassasiyetin artması, geçmişten günümüze bu iki kavramın birlikte evrilerek yeniden varlanmasını kuvvetle tetiklemeye devam etmektedir. Bu evrilerek yeniden varlanma ise, 'travma ve dissosiyasyon' alanında klinik ve teorik yönden hem etkin psikoterapi yöntemlerinin yapılandırılmasına hem de yenilikçi psikotravmatoloji akımlarının, modalitelerinin ve paradigmalarının oluşturulmasına maksimal ve öncül akademik katkılar sağlamaktadır. Editörlüğümde modern psikotravmatoloji alanında hazırlanan bu temel eser, Pierre Janet ve Lloyd deMause'a adanmıştır:

''Dünyanın bütün toplumlarında ve dünyanın bütün zamanlarında, psikoloji ve psikiyatri bilimlerinin bütün duayen isimleri, hiçbir koşulda ana-akım yaklaşımların yahut ekollerin bir parçası ya da uydusu olmadan ya da onlarla çıkar odaklı bir ittifak kurmadan hatta kontamine olmadan veya travmayı inkar etmeden psikotravmatoloji yönelimli fikir ve kuramlarını bir pazarlama ürününe dönüştürmeden yapılandırmaya devam etmişlerdir ki günümüze hala saydam ışık veren bu sürecin kendisi de, onların geçmişten aktüele kadar olan uzamda geniş zamanlı birer hem bilim insanları hem de 'bilim ikonları' olmalarını sağlarken, aynı zamanda yine onların günümüzün modern psikoterapi paradigma ve modaliteleri için hâlâ güçlü ve özgün bir temel oluşturmalarını imkanlı kılmaktadır. Pierre Janet; Psikotravmatolojinin tek duayeni! ve Lloyd deMause; İnsanlık tarihinin en değerli teorisyeni! Bütün final cümlelerim kendilerinedir...''

Prof. Dr. Erdinç ÖZTÜRK
Editör
Dear Scientists,

The rise and extinction periods of "Psychotraumatology: trauma and dissociation" studies are based on the division of mental health professionals with or without ethical values and social masses into two different poles in external orientation to each other in all countries of the world. It turns into a movement by gaining the support of those who are in the dominant position at that time, but it functions on the dual axis that "professional awareness levels", "psychosocial compassion levels" and "optimal consciousness degrees" show parallelism with its "periods of rise" and "resistance to trauma studies", "pathological insensitivity" and "neglect of mainstream psychiatry" show parallelism with its "extinction periods". Traumatic experiences with a wide spectrum of operational definitions include traumatic and dissociative life experiences that create disruptions on individuals' psychological integration such as childhood traumas, psychosocial oppression, cycles of mass violence, terrorism, wars, natural disasters, occupational or transportation accidents, events with a positive nature that are prevented from occurring, mobbing, academic abuse, forced migration, child labor, brainwashing, maltreatment, torture and negative child-rearing styles.

Short or long-term "functional psychotherapy approaches", "effective crisis intervention programs" and "successful prevention strategies"cannot be developed without psychosocial dissoanalysis of violence-focused negative child-rearing styles on childhood traumas. In terms of modern psychotraumatology paradigms, childhood traumas are primitive and intergenerationally transmitted dissociogenic attitudes and behaviors that function in negative child-rearing styles and are almost "imprisoned" or "hidden" as a "punishment tool" in these negative child-rearing styles. Psychotraumatology and psychohistory, which contain the closest relationship with negative child-rearing styles, childhood traumas and dissociative experiences, are the two main fields of psychology that both support and feed on each other. Long-term psychosocial dissociative reactions of chronic traumatic experiences are analyzed in both psychohistory and psychotraumatology.

The more alliances individuals have in their psychosocial consciousness and perception of the reality, the more integrated they are. Accordingly, both individual and social "consciousness alliance" is the most basic condition of integration. However, the hypothesis of the unity of consciousness, reality and even identity is just an illusion. The dynamic, flexible, and progressive profiles of the masses, which differ from the past to the present, clearly reveals the existence of the multiple consciousness system. Now, in today's society, individuals are about to be able to both lead a life away from the encompassing chronic oppression and traumatic life experiences with their multiple consciousnesses, multiple realities and multiple identities, and adapt to the usual dynamics of life on the axis of a new "psychosocial consciousness alliance" that they have created. The dominant factor in each individual in the adaptive dissociative process is the mobile and multi-conscious system, which can be optimally integrated and is a "plural singularity experience".

In this context, the "dissoanalysis theory" developed by me is, in brief, the "psychosocial therapy" itself! The main purpose of dissoanalysis is to create integrative individuals and societies that are open to improvement. Dissoanalysis is the neutralization of the fundamental transmitted dissociogenic components underlying individual and social traumas with a holistic orientation with the help of developing psychosocial theories focused on strategies to prevent negative life events in order to both treat and end individual and social traumas as soon as possible and constructing clinical-based modern psychotherapy methods with psychotraumatology and psychohistory perspectives on dissociative disorders, which show the closest relationship with chronic childhood traumas.

When the ratio of psychologically integrated and transformation and development focused individuals to the average increases on the axis of a psychosocial consciousness alliance, a new and original human profile becomes enabled. The main goal of modern psychotraumatology is to enable a society of psychologically integrated individuals to prevail in the intergenerational process. However, chronic childhood traumas and consecutive wars in the sorrowful anamnesis of humanity always feature dissociative disorders as the fundamental psychiatric diagnosis group. Although the history of modern psychotraumatology is laden with amnesic episodes of trauma and dissociative disorders in varying time streams, the increase in scientific importance and sensitivity to psychiatric disorders associated with traumatic experiences in recent years continues to strongly trigger the evolution and re-existence of these two concepts together from the past to the present. Additionally, this evolving re-existence provides maximal and pioneering academic contributions to both the structuring of effective psychotherapy methods and the creation of innovative psychotraumatology movements, modalities and paradigms in the field of "trauma and dissociation" both clinically and theoretically. This foundational work in modern psychotraumatology, under my editorship, is dedicated to Pierre Janet and Lloyd deMause:

"In all societies and at all times of the world, all the doyens of psychology and psychiatry have continued to construct their psychotraumatology-oriented ideas and theories without turning them into a marketing product without being part or satellite of mainstream approaches or schools, or forming an interest-oriented alliance with them or even being contaminated or denying trauma under no circumstances, and this process, which still sheds a transparent light to the present, enables them to be both scientists and "science icons" in the space from the past to the present and it also enables them to still lay a strong and original foundation for today"s modern psychotherapy paradigms and modalities. Pierre Janet; The only doyen of psychotraumatology! and Lloyd deMause; The most valuable theorist in history of humanity! I dedicate all my final sentences to them..."

Prof. Dr. Erdinç ÖZTÜRK
Editor

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