Journal of Traditional Medical Complementary Therapies

.: REVIEW
Diyet Posası, Genetik Varyantlar ve Hastalıklar Etkileşimi: Sistematik Derleme
Interaction of Dietary Fiber, Genetic Variants and Diseases: Systematic Review
Seda ÇELİKELa, Mehtap AKÇİL OKb
aBayburt Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Beslenme ve Diyetetik Bölümü, Bayburt, Türkiye
bBaşkent Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Beslenme ve Diyetetik Bölümü, Ankara, Türkiye
J Tradit Complem Med. 2022;5(3):264-70
doi: 10.5336/jtracom.2022-88008
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Çağımızın önemli hastalık ve rahatsızlıkları olan diyabet, obezite, kardiyovasküler hastalıklar çevresel risk faktörlerinin yanında, aynı zamanda genetik yatkınlık sonucu şekillenmektedir. Başta beslenme olmak üzere büyüme ve enerji regülasyonu ile birlikte birçok fizyolojik süreç üzerinde çok sayıda genetik varyantın etkisi bulunmaktadır. Genetik varyantlar ile ilişkili hastalık sorunlarının belirlenmesi stratejik ve kritik öneme sahiptir. Diyabet, obezite, kardiyovasküler hastalıkların görülme oranındaki artış, bireylerin genetik yapılarına özgün diyet programlarının oluşturulmasının gerekliliği ve beslenme programı içerisinde diyet posası tüketimi konusunu önemli hâle gelmiştir. Kronik hastalıklara karşı koruyucu olduğu kabul edilen diyet bileşenlerinden biri de diyet posasıdır. Diyet posası; meyve ve sebzeler, kurubaklagiller, yulaf ve tam tahıl gibi bitkisel kaynaklı besinlerde bulunan insan sindirim sistemi enzimleri tarafından sindirilemeyen, karbonhidrat bileşenleri olan dirençli nişasta, lignin, selüloz, pektin, gumlar, hemiselüloz, β-glukan, inülin, oligosakkaritler ve fruktanlar gibi bileşenleri içermektir. Diyet posası, genetik varyantların yol açtığı sağlık sorunları ve hastalıklar, obezite parametreleri ve lipid profili üzerinde olumlu etkisi bulunmaktadır. Obeziteye duyarlılıktaki bireyler arası farklılıklar, epigenetik faktörlere bağlı olması nedeniyle bu farklılıkların belirlenmesi genetik varyantlar sayesinde belirlenebilmektedir. Bu etkileşimin aydınlatılmasına yönelik araştırmalar; diyabet, obezite, kardiyovasküler ve kronik hastalıkların prevalansı ve tedavi süreçlerine önemli katkılar sağlayarak ışık tutacaktır. Bu derleme, diyet posası alımının genetik varyantlar ve hastalıklar arasındaki etkileşimini incelemek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Diyet posası; beslenme; genetik varyant; obezite; diyabet
ABSTRACT
Diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases, which are important diseases and disorders of our age, are shaped as a result of genetic predisposition as well as environmental risk factors. Many genetic variants have an effect on many physiological processes, especially on nutrition, growth and energy regulation. The identification of genetic variants associated disease problems is of strategic and critical importance. The issue of diabetes, obesity, the increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, the necessity of creating diet programs specific to the genetic structure of individuals and the consumption of dietary pulp within the nutrition program have become important. One of the dietary components considered to be protective against chronic diseases is dietary fiber. Dietary fiber; it contains components such as resistant starch, lignin, cellulose, pectin, gums, hemicellulose, β-glucan, inulin, oligosaccharides and fructans, which are carbohydrate components that cannot be digested by human digestive system enzymes found in plant-based foods such as fruits and vegetables, legumes, oats and whole grains. Dietary fiber has a positive effect on health problems and diseases caused by genetic variants, obesity parameters and lipid profile. Since interindividual differences in obesity susceptibility depend on epigenetic factors, the determination of these differences can be determined by genetic variants. Researches aimed at elucidating this interaction; it will shed light on the prevalence and treatment processes of diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular and chronic diseases. This review was prepared to examine the interaction of dietary fiber intake between genetic variants and diseases.

Keywords: Dietary fiber; nutrition; genetic variation; obesity; diabetes
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